|Title:||U.S. History Review Sheet, Part II|
|Updated:||June 2, 2000|
|Copyright:||©1999-2000 by David Bender, all rights reserved.|
1. Wabash Case (Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. V. Illinois)
The Illinois state constitution of 1870 declared railroads to be public highways and authorized legislatures to pass rates for the railroads. In Munn V. Illinois, the Supreme Court upheld the Illinois legislature, saying that is it justified since a railroad serves the public welfare. In 1866, the Wabash case narrowed the Munn ruling, saying that only Congress could regulate commerce outside state lines.
2. Pendleton Act
Under President Chester A. Arthur, this 1883 act reformed civil service and created the Civil Service Commission to administer competitive examinations and appoint officeholders on the basis of merit.
3. Sherman Antitrust Act
This act said that any business acting in restraint of trade could be sued and dismantled by the government. The Supreme Court threw out almost all cases where the government tried to sue business monopolies except those cases involving trade unions. This tried to harness business without harming it but the Supreme Court crippled the act. It would gain power later on.
4. United States v. E.C. Knight Co.
This was an example of a case where the Supreme Court threw out a case where the government tried to sue a business monopoly. This weakened the Sherman Antitrust Act.
5. Bland-Allison Act
This bill was vetoed by President Hayes but was later passed by Congress. This was a silver purchase act which called for the partial coinage of silver.
6. Sherman Silver Purchase Act
This tried to end the problem of silver. Silver was lowering in price but the South and the West wanted silver coinage to challenge the power of the gold-oriented Northeast. This act was a compromise: the Treasury had to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver per month and issue treasury notes for it. Silver opponents were appeased because there was no free coinage of silver and the silverites were happy because the government would start to buy some of the silver production. This made America a very bi-metallic nation.
7. Gold Standard Act
This 1900 act made gold the standard backer of U.S. currency and therefore called for no more silver.
8. McKinley Tariff Act
This raised the tariff 4%: the highest increase at the time. It allowed the President to lower the tariff if other countries did.
9. Dingley Tariff Act
This 1897 tariff raised the average tariff to the highest rate ever and caused trouble for the Republicans. At first the Republicans had to promote the economy but by 1900 they had to regulate it.
10. Interstate Commerce Act
This 1877 act created the Interstate Commerce Commission to investigate railroad activities. The ICC became a prototype for federal commissions that regulate much of the U.S. economy.
11. Elkins Act
This act prohibited railroad rebates and increased the power of the ICC with the consent of the railroad leaders.
12. Hepburn Act
The high demand for railroad regulation led to this act in 1906 which increased the rate-making power of the ICC. It also increased the ICC membership from 5 to 7, gave it broader jurisdiction, and the power to fix maximum railroad rates.
13. Mann-Elkins Act
This 1910 bill was backed by President Taft and allowed the ICC to fix maximum railroad rates. It was partially supported by the Progressives. It gave the ICC the power to set rates, and enforce stiffer regulations. It placed the phone and telegraph industries under the ICC. This act pleased the Progressives.
14. Northern Securities Case
In 1902, President Roosevelt helped bring a suit against the Northen Securities Company for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act despite the protests of J.P. Morgan. This company was a huge holding company with some of the biggest names in business behind it. In 1904, the Supreme Court upheld the suit and ordered the company dissolved. Roosevelt was delighted and followed up with several other antitrust suits.
15. Pure Food and Drug Act
This act required medicines to list certain ingredients and was a pioneer in the fight against medicinal fraud.
16. Payne-Aldrich Tariff
During the Taft presidency, the Republicans were divided over the tariff and there was a lot of part insurgency against high rates. Taft wavered and tried to compromise but eventually backed a higher tariff. The 1909 Payne-Aldrich Act imposed higher tariff rates then the original House bill and was unpopular. It discredited Taft and revealed the Republican party tensions.
17. Federal Workmans Compensation Act
This act extended worker compensation to government employees.
18. Keating-Owen Act
This was the first federal child labor law. It outlawed shipments made by children under the age of 14.
19. Tariff Commission Act
This act created an expert commission to recommend tariff rates.
20. Federal Reserve Act
This 1913 act created the first efficient banking system since Jacksonian times. It created a sound yet flexible currency. The system consisted of 12 regional banks which answered to a Federal Reserve Board appointed by the President. The system was a blend of public and private control. The banks could issue currency and could raise or lower the amount of money in circulation.
21. Clayton Act
The 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act outlawed directorates and unfair trade practices. This delighted the Samuel Gompers and the labor movement because it said that unions were legal. Unfortunately, the courts rejected the legality of unions at the time.
22. Platt Amendment
This was a provision in the Cuban constitution that said that Cuba couldnt make treaties with other powers that might impair its independence, or acquire debts it couldnt pay. It also leased naval bases such as Guantanamo Bay to the U.S.
23. Dooley v. U.S.
This was a case where the Supreme Court asserted that the Constitution did not immediately and automatically apply to annexed territories and did not give the people in them all of the privileges of U.S. citizenship. Instead, Congress could extend Constitutional provisions as it saw fit.
24. Henry Cabot Lodge
This was a powerful Republican senator who opposed Wilsons fourteen points and headed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was instrumental in the major weakening of the fourteen points in Congress.
25. William Borah
In 1919, Borah led fourteen Republican senators who were known as the "irreconcilables" who opposed the League of Nations on any grounds.
26. Bernard Baruch
He was a millionaire speculator on Wall Street who headed the War Industries Board which oversaw the production of all U.S. factories during World War I. The Board determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices. Baruch worked closely with business and acted as the director of the American economy for a short while.
During the 1896 election, Bryan was a Democrat who supported silver coinage but lost to McKinley in the election. He was opposed to annexing the Philippines but supported ratification of a treaty to end the war and his support influenced some Democratic votes. In 1913 and 1914, he organized "cooling off" treaties with thirty nations to ease tensions. Along with Wilson, he supported a dramatic new approach to Latin America based on human rights and national integrity.
During the U.S. naval revolution of the 1880's Alfred Thayer Mahan and Benjamin F. Tracy were the two main forces behind naval expansions. They called attention to a race for power and said that the U.S. needed to expand.
29. Social Darwinism
This was one of the ideas behind the late nineteenth century expansion and was supported by figures such as Mahan, Fiske, and Strong. According to the theory, there are few resources available that living things need to survive: energy, food, and reproduction. The theory also says that there is variability. Not everything is the same and some variations which are passed on allowing some living things to get more resources than others. Beneficial variations will spread while others will dissipate. Human society is made up of individuals and groups which have certain cultural variations. Some cultures have variations which make them more successful than others. This was a major motive in American expansion.
30. Farmers Alliance
During the 1880's, many farmers were in economic distress and people wanted more government activism. Also called the Southern Alliance, this group spread quickly and took in country doctors, teachers, preachers, and mechanics. It published a newspaper and distributed material all over the country. It established cooperative grain elevators, a marketing association, and retail stores. All of these were designed to increase farmers profits. Although there was also a Northwest Alliance, the Farmers Alliance dominated the movement. At first it was mainly social and economical but it soon turned to politics. Its leaders rejected the Republicans and Democrats and started their own party which became the first major peoples party. In 1890, the Alliance met in Ocala, Florida and adopted the Ocala Demands which became its platform.
31. Sub-Treasury System
The Ocala Demands called for a "sub-treasury system" which would allow farmers to store crops in government warehouses. In return, they could claim treasury notes for up to 80% of the current crop value. This system allowed farmers to hold their crops for the best price. The Ocala demands also urged free silver coinage, an end to the national bank, protective tariffs, federal income tax, direct election of senators by the voters, and tighter regulation of railroad companies.
32. Josiah Strong
Strong was an expansionist who believed heavily in social Darwinism. He was a congressional minister who favored missionary work to "christianize" the uncivilized people of the world.
33. Emilio Aguinaldo
He was a Filipino leader who helped the U.S. in the Spanish American War but then rebelled against the U.S. for independence. A 3-year guerilla war took place with a very high death toll. In 1900, McKinley sent Taft to the Philippines to establish a civilized government and Aguinaldo was captured.
34. Taft Commission
McKinley sent Howard Taft to lead a special Philippine Commission to establish a civil government. The commission organized municipal administrations and created a government in stages.
35. Open Door Notes
China had been seriously weakened by war, and Japan, Germany, England, France, Germany, and Russia all wanted control over the country. In 1898, McKinley began the "Open Door" policy with China. It had three parts. The first was that nations with spheres of influence must respect the rights of other nations in that sphere. The second was that the Chinese government still collects tariffs in all spheres. The third is that there can be no discrimination over port dues and railroad rates. This policy tried to help China but America meddled a great deal in their affairs. Since it was not militarily defended, it led to controversy with Japan and other nations. This policy was not generous. China was now under the control of Europe and Japan and the U.S. wanted to be able to trade with the various spheres of influence. Most countries basically ignored the policy.
36. Treaty of Paris (1899)
In this treaty, the U.S. gave Spain $20 million for the Phillippines. This led to great controversy and debate. The anti-imperialists were led by figures such as Carnegie, Sherman, Reed, Twain, and others. They protested the annexation saying that it violates the independence and national self determination on which the country is based. They also feared cheap labor from the colonies and were against the assimilation of other questions. They said tyranny abroad leads to tyranny at home and that colonies lead to large armies, governments, and debts. Some anti-imperialists said that we have enough problems at home. They appealed to racism by saying that if we allow the Philippines to become part of the U.S. it will lead to a lower value of native citizens. Those in favor of acquiring the Philippines because they said that Spain is weak and that if we dont take the Philippines another country will. They also saw it as a stepping stone to the China trade and a valuable base and refueling station for the navy. Some people wanted to christianize them. McKinley took the Philippines to prevent other from taking it. He was troubled over what to do so he prayed and God told him to take the Philippines.
37. Wisconsin Idea
Robert M. La Follette from Wisconsin was the most famous of the reform governors. His "Wisconsin Idea" was one of the most important reforms in the history of state government. It established an industrial commission to regulate factory safety and sanitation. It called for better education, workers compensation, public utility controls, resource conservation, lower railroad rates, higher railroad taxes, and the first direct primary and income tax. This was a progressive reform idea.
38. Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt saw the federal government as an honest and impartial "broker" between powerful elements in society. He called his actions the "square deal" and took a stand for labor. He was the first to threaten the seizure of a company. He pursued a middle way to curb corporate and labor abuses, abolish privileges, and increase individual opportunity. He was often conservative: backing reforms to hold off more radical measures.
39. New Nationalism
This was Teddy Roosevelts program and was an important phase in American politics. It brought a national approach with a strong president. It called for an efficient government and society, exalted the executive and the expert, urged social justice reforms, and accepted "good trusts." It was a Progressive program that was the first to enlist women such as Jane Addams, a well-known settlement worker who supported Roosevelt.
40. New Freedom
Wilsons program put an emphasis on competition and small government. It called for a free and unplanned economy. The essential problem of both New Freedom and New Nationalism was economic growth and its effect on the individual and society. Wilsons plan won and he was one of the most effective presidents in passing bills. Through his actions, Wilson accomplished everything that he seemed to oppose. He failed in terms of his announced goals because there is a contradiction in his policy: a free environment must be regulated by a big government to restore the U.S. to a small government. This cannot work because the present U.S. economy of the time was inevitable. Wilson was an inspiring and crafty moralist who believed that his morals were absolute. He was a utopian like Thomas Jefferson.
41. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
The issue of conservation was a major blow to the relationship between Teddy Roosevelt and Howard Taft. Along with Roosevelt, Pinchot had been a major conservationist and environmentalist and did a lot to help the environment. Pinchot was the chief of the forest service. Taft supported Ballinger who offered for sale a million acres that Pinchot had withdrawn from sale for conservationist reasons. Pinchot criticized Taft and Taft fired him. The controversy was followed closely by the newspapers and helped discredit the Taft presidency. Conservation was essential to Progressives because the business world had discovered that an efficient command of resources was very important. Natural resources had to be used efficiently and not wasted. They had to be effectively managed for future people. Progressives also believed that people need to recharge in the natural world so that they will make better workers.
See #37: Wisconsin Idea.
Secretary of State John Hay sent Open Door Notes under McKinley to many countries. In 1900, not everyone accepted the Open Door but Hay said that they did. He believed that the U.S. needed to preserve Chinese independence. He was also instrumental in getting the rights to the future Panama Canal for the U.S.
44. Sussex Pledge
In 1916, Germany declared submarine warfare against all armed ships and Wilson sent an ultimatum to the Germans that they must either stop cargo and passenger attacks or sever diplomatic relations. The kaiser yielded and in the Sussex Pledge promised only to shoot the enemy navy in return for the U.S. compelling England to end their blockade. This pledge was the beginning of short-term friendly relations between Germany and the U.S. The problem was that Wilson had taken a strong position so renewed submarine warfare would inevitably lead to war. The agreement helped Wilson win the 1916 election. Wilson protested to German sinking of non-American cargo and passenger vessels because there were Americans on those ships. Wilson believed that their right to life according to the Bill of Rights extends to everyone. He was trying to morally organize the world.
This was a British steamer with a lot of Americans on board that was sunk by a German U-Boat in 1915. Many such as Teddy Roosevelt called for war. Wilson sent a series of diplomatic notes demanding a change in German policy. He demanded that the Germans protect passenger vessels and pay for American losses. This led to Bryans resignation as Secretary of State. Although Germany backed up, this event was among a series of conflicts that eventually led to war.
46. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
In 1917 Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare on all ships near England and Wilson cut off diplomatic relations but still wanted peace. Wilson then received a telegram intercepted from the Germans to the Mexicans asking for Mexican help against the U.S. and Wilson armed merchant ships and ordered U.S. vessels to fire on German U-boats. He asked for a declaration of war and Congress accepted although the nation was still divided over the war.
47. 14 Points
Known as the 14 Points, Wilsons war aims were a repetition of the Neutrality Proclamation. Wilson didnt want a punitive settlement or a division of Germany. The 14 points were generous and farsighted: they didnt satisfy the wartime emotion for vindication against Germany. England and France wanted to cripple Germany and take its colonies but agreed with Wilson under threat of a separate treaty. In the 1918 Congressional elections, the Republicans gained a majority and this hurt Wilson in negotiations. At a 1919 peace conference in Paris, Wilson gave small concessions for major goals: national self-determination, lowered tensions, and a League of Nations to enforce the peace. Wilson encountered strong opposition to the treaty in Congress headed by Senator Lodge. A League of Nations was created but in a much weaker state than Wilson had envisioned. It had no domestic jurisdiction. His goals of disarmament: freedom of the seas, and free trade also werent realized. One of the reasons for Wilsons failure was the determination of France and England to punish the Germans. Unlike the other negotiators at the peace conference, Wilson did not have the buoy of support from their legislatures. His wifes constant yelling and a stroke also weakened Wilson. According to the 14 Points, U.S. trade should not be impeded. It was anti-colonial. The League of Nations section expressed the view that there is no reason for wars because human beings are virtuous and rational. The document called for disarmament, small armies, and the abolishment of secret diplomacy. Wilson mistakenly thought that human beings are intelligent, rational and peaceable. England and France considered these ideas to be ridiculous. In the end, Wilson didnt fight for all of his goals because he got a League of Nations.
48. Versailles Treaty
This treaty ended World War I and created Poland and Czechoslovakia as independent nations. It divided up German colonies in Asia and Africa and demanded $33 billion in reparations from Germany. It did not include disarmament, free trade, or freedom of the seas. There was a lot of controversy over the treaty in the U.S. and it wasnt signed until 1921.
49. League of Nations
Point 14 of Wilsons 14 Points called for a League of Nations to "achieve international peace and security." The League was created in a severely weakened form with no domestic jurisdiction. The U.S. decided to be isolationist and didnt join the league.
In 1919, there were 14 "Irreconcileables" in Congress led by Senator Lodge who opposed the Versailles Treaty on any grounds.
World War I severely damaged the humanitarian and progressive spirit of the early 20th Century. In its aftermath, the U.S. reverted to an isolationist policy and was determined to stay out of world affairs. The U.S. refused to join the League of Nations. The isolationism lasted all the way up until World War II and even then the country was hesitant and unwilling to take action.
52. Dawes and Young Plans
The Dawes Plan was an arrangement for Germany to pay reparations after World War I. It was presented by a committee led by Charles G. Dawes and was accepted in 1924. It called for large payments to begin the reorganization of German banks. The plan was successful and it was replaced in 1929 by the Young Plan which removed the stringent controls on Germany and fixed total reparations. In these plans, the U.S. lent money to Europe to maintain the balance of power.
53. Washington Conferences (1920's)
In 1921 the U.S., Japan, England, and 6 other nations met to politically solve the Asian tension. The big issue was the dangerous naval race that had developed. All sides wanted to slow the naval expansion. The Five Power Treaty placed a limit by ratio on capital ships: 5-5-3-1.67-1.67 for the U.S., England, Japan, France and Italy. Japan agreed to a lower ratio in return for a U.S. pledge not to fortify their Pacific bases. The 9 power treaty pledged to uphold the Open Door. The 4 power treaty replaced a pact between England and Japan with a pact between the U.S., England, Japan, and France.
54. Kellog-Briand Pact
This 1928 pact was the result of a determined U.S. effort to stay out of the European alliance system. The signers included almost every nation in the world but it had little effect. All nations promised to renounce war as an instrument of foreign policy except in matters of self-defense. The treaty was mostly symbolic and was not really enforced. Japan violated the treaty by invading Manchuria in 1931.
55. National Origins Quota Act
This 1924 act limited immigration from Europe to 150,000 a year and gave most of the slots to English, Irish, German, and Scandinavian immigrants. It also banned all Asian immigrants and passed with overwhelming rural support.
56. Red Scare
World War I gave rise to the "Red Scare" which began in 1919. Americans feared Lenins anticapitalist program and denounced Lenins decision to make peace with Germany in 1918. Wilson contributed to this by joining an economic blockade against Russia, sending weapons to anti-Bolshevik insurgents, and refusing to recognize Lenins government. This soured U.S.-Russian relations for many decades. People began to panic and an extreme anti-bolshevism movement began. Its extremism led to its dying out by 1920 but it had great influence on American society in the 1920's. It symbolized the intolerance and bigotry of the age.
57. Scopes Trial
This trial was a setup. This was on of the most famous attacks on the new urban culture of the 20's. Scopes was a high school biology teacher who deliberately violated Tennessee law by teaching his students about the theory of evolution. William Jennings Bryan prosecuted against him and the court found Scopes guilty but let him off with a token fine. This was a symbol of the growing traditional rural beliefs.
This stands for the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, established in 1932. This was proposed by Hoover during the Great Depression to help the imperiled banks and insurance companies. It loaned government money to financial institutions to save them from bankruptcy. Hoover was against government charity and believed in volunteerism. Hoover had to contradict his beliefs and accept the RFC when the crisis worsened. His response to the Great Depression was inadequate.
This was the Agricultural Adjustment Act and was among Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal legislation to combat the Great Depression. It was established in 1933. This was a solution to the farmers problem of overproduction. The AAA set production limits and allocated acreage, thereby destroying the "plenty." The AAA worked better in 1934 and 1935 when farmers were using less land, having smaller harvests, and making more profits. Farmers income rose for the first time since World War I, mostly because of subsidiary payments. The AAA only helped large-scale farmers.
This was the National Recovery Administration established in 1933 with the purpose of achieving economic advance through cooperation between government, business, and labor. It wanted to stabilize production, raise prices, and set maximum hours and minimum wages. The NRA called for companies in each industry to cooperate in writing codes of fair competition. The NRA quickly bogged down because it was too vast to enforce and it favored big business. It failed because of greed and self-interest and was invalidated by the Supreme Court in 1935. This was part of the moderate phase of the New Deal and it sought cooperation between the government and business to create trusts. It was like the government endorsing feudalism and the government gave immense power to big business.
This was the Public Works Administration headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes and authorized in 1933. This was a measure for work relief. Ickes was intent on the quality of the project rather than human needs and it therefore failed to put many of the unemployed to work. Ickes was conservative and didnt spend a lot of his budget. Roosevelt then created the Civil Works Administration (CWA) under Harry Hopkins which put many people to work improving public facilities.
As part of his New Deal reforms, Roosevelt wanted the government to control the bank. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was established to give a federal guarantee of savings banks deposits up to a certain amount of money. It was designed to save the banks.
63. Social Security Act
This was a program of old-age pensions financed by a tax on both employers and workers. It was a system of unemployed compensation on a federal-state basis. It provided direct federal grants to the states for the welfare of the blind, handicapped, needy, elderly, and dependent children. It was a regressive program: not everyone was covered, it took away money needed to stimulate the economy, and the payments were very low. It reflected FDRs orthodoxy and political realism but also was a landmark in that it established government responsibility for the aged, handicapped, and unemployed. Social Security was not such a radical measure: it didnt provide retirement funds and didnt cover many people at first. This marks the first time that people come into rewarding contact with the U.S. government.
64. Wagner Act
The Wagner Act created a board to preside over labor-management relations and enable unions to collectively bargain with federal support. The board outlawed many union busting tactics which led to a revitalization in American labor and a change in the relationship between labor and management. This was a major change in American society where the government directly interceded on the side of unions.
The Tennessee Valley Authority was an attempt at regional planning including provisions for environment and recreational design, architectural, educational, and health projects, and controversial public power projects.
The Work Progress Administration provided $5 Billion for emergency relief and placed many unemployed people on the federal payroll. The WPA also provided work for artists, actors, and writers and provided 2.5 million young adults with work. The WPA helped ease unemployment but didnt spend enough money. People still had very low wages leading to low purchase power and factories continued to close.
67. Pump Priming (Keynes)
In the 1920's, John Keynes developed the idea that the government should have a counter-cyclical policy visa V. the economy. This is known as Keynesian economics. Keynes said that the government should pump a lot of money into the economy which was called "pump priming" and make itself into a self-generating pump. Pump priming would create a self-generating economy which would withdraw money when its doing well and pump money in when its doing badly. This system was rejected by many people at the time. Kennedy was the first president to support Keynesian economics.
68. Court Packing Crisis
In 1937, FDR attempted to overcome the Supreme Court which had ruled several New Deal measures such as the NRA and AAA to be unconstitutional. Only 3 of the 9 justices were sympathetic to the New Deal but most of the judges were older men and used the constitution to block Roosevelts proposals. Roosevelt claimed that due to their age the Court had fallen behind schedule and asked Congress to allow him to appoint new judges to replace those Supreme Court justices over the age of 70. This outraged both liberals and conservatives and Senate resistance blocked the proposal. The Supreme Court defended itself way, saying that they were on schedule and approving two ND programs: the Wagner Act and Social Security. Roosevelt abandoned his court packing plan and some of the older justices resigned. This crisis led to bad Congressional relations and rifts within Roosevelts own party. FDRs attack on the courts was seen as a political ploy and drained a lot of his support. This was on of the reasons for the collapse of the New Deal.
69. Nye Commission
In 1935, this commission introduced four measures dealing with the recent trouble in Europe. IT banned arms sales to belligerent nations, outlawed U.S. passengers on belligerent ships, denied the extension of any credit to belligerents, and established a policy of cash and carry for nonmilitary goods. The commission was a response to the U.S. experience in a similar situation during World War I. Roosevelt didnt agree with the Nye Commission but believed that if he acted too quickly a true isolationist leader would come to power in the U.S.
70. Neutrality Laws (1930's)
The first neutrality act in 1935 banned the sale of arms to nations at war and warned Americans not to travel on belligerent ships. In 1936, the second act added a ban on loans. In 1937, the third act made these prohibitions permanent and required and that all trade other than munitions be conducted on a cash and carry basis.
71. Quarantine Speech
This was a speech made by Roosevelt in 1938 where he said that the democracy of the United States must "quarantine" the growing threat of fascist dictators in Europe. The speech was an inaccurate, inadequate, and symbolic response to a real threat. It had very little effect.
72. Cash and Carry
This was a system where all trade of nonmilitary goods had to be shipped both ways by the country who buys the products. Also, only cash would be accepted for the goods: no credit. When the war began, cash and carry applied to weapons also. Germany couldnt benefit from cash and carry because England controlled the seas and also because it had no cash and its economy was bankrupt. Cash and carry didnt help the Allies either because the sea war wasnt going well for England and France had already been taken over by the Germans.
73. Destroyers for Bases
In the summer of 1940, the U.S. sent 50 destroyers to England in exchange for U.S. control of certain English bases. This helped England in 2 ways because England no longer had to concentrate on defending its bases and the destroyers helped strengthen the severely weakened British Navy.
74. Lend Lease
This was a system where the U.S. extended weapons to its allies free of charge and created the illusion that we would get them back. This is bogus because no one wants to receive used and blown-up war parts. Lend-lease was very helpful to the Soviet war effort.
75. Reuben James, Kearney
During the undeclared naval war between the U.S. and Germany in 1941, a German submarine damaged the U.S. destroyer Kearney. Soon after, another U-boat sank the Reuben James and killed more than 100 U.S. soldiers. As a result, FDR ordered U.S. destroyers to shoot U-boats on sight and got Congress to allow him to ship supplies directly to England.
76. Second Front
In addition to the conflict with Germany, tensions were rising on a second front in the Pacific against Japan. The U.S. used economic sanctions to defend Southeast Asia from Japanese expansion but Japan still occupied many Southeast bases. Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy: a defensive treaty which meant a possible two-front war for the U.S. Diplomacy failed with China and soon after the attack on Pearl Harbor led to U.S. involvement in World War II.
77. Pearl Harbor
Japan totally rejected the U.S. position over the recent trade embargoes against Japan that stopped all oil shipments to the Asian power. While Japanese diplomats were in Washington, Japanese planes caught the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor by surprise and completely crippled the U.S. Pacific fleet. The Japanese sunk 8 U.S. battleships and killed more than 2,400 U.S. sailors. As a result, FDR asked for a declaration of war and the U.S. finally entered World War II. The attack gave the U.S. an excuse to go to war. Hitler then declared war on the U.S. which was a very stupid move. In a way, Pearl Harbor was provoked by FDRs foolish, halfway measures. Due to the embargo on steel, oil, and gas, Japan could either bow to U.S. demands and withdraw from China or sit and wait for 6 months. Japan chose the risky third choice in an attack on Pearl Harbor. Washington, D.C. warned the base through Western Union but it arrived too late. Japan made some big mistakes in the attack by not attacking the majority of U.S. aircraft carriers and by not attacking the fuel and repair facilities at Pearl Harbor.
78. Operation Torch
This was Englands approach to the defeat of Germany. It called for a perimeter approach and an invasion of North Africa. The U.S. initially gave in to this approach and it was successful.
79. Operation Overlord
This was the second approach to defeating Germany, the direct invasion of Western Europe. General Eisenhower supported it. The D-day invasion at Normandy was a very close call and couldve easily gone in German favor. The Allies pretended to give up fake war plans to Germany and created a fake invasion force to trick the Germans. Hitler was sleeping during the invasion so no one could order German tanks for a counter attack until it was too late. Weather conditions also benefited the Allies in the invasion. In the end it didnt matter which approach the Allies took because of the Soviets who fought the brunt of the battle against the Germans.
This 1942 battle was the turning point of the war in the Pacific. Japan had vastly superior forces and couldve won easily but the Japanese made a big mistake in being too elegant and refined in thought. They split their forces into four groups and the U.S. broke their code. As had been the pattern, Japan was indecisive and kept changing their minds. The U.S. sunk all of the Japanese carriers and gained control over the Central Pacific.
81. Yalta Conference
In 1945 FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta. Stalin demanded communism in Poland and the Balkans and got what he wanted but agreed to a Declaration of Liberated Europe which called for free elections in Europe. Russia also promised to enter the Pacific war in three months in exchange for increased control in Asia. Yalta was a big victory for Russia that reflected their great contribution to the German defeat. The U.S. and Russia agreed to a Far East balance of power with the Russians controlling northeast Asia and the U.S. controlling the Pacific (including Japan.) FDR foolishly gave up too much at the conference. An alternate interpretation is that FDR was a realist and knew that the Soviet Union could do what they wanted. Roosevelt did get a promise from Stalin to take into account the will of Eastern Europe and to hold minimally free elections. Stalin kept to the Yalta conference but Truman didnt think his elections were free enough. Stalin never intended to colonize Eastern Europe until U.S. action made him nervous. Therefore, Stalins violations were a response to U.S. violations.
82. Potsdam Conference
Truman, Stalin, and Attlee (Churchills replacement) met in 1945 at Potsdam. Truman and Stalin clashed over such issues as reparations, the Polish border, and the fate of eastern Europe. Truman hinted to Stalin about the existence of an atomic bomb and neither talked much of it. Reparations were the crucial issue since Russia wanted to rebuild its economy with German industry. A compromise was reached that each side would take reparations primarily from its own occupation zone. The conference ended on a good note, but the tensions of the coming Cold War were brewing. At Potsdam, the U.S. and England warned Japan of utter destruction. Japan had no comment about the conference and the U.S. took this to mean that "they treat it with contempt."
83. Truman Doctrine
In 1947, England could no longer afford to keep fighting in a local civil war in Greece. There was also pressure on Turkey from Russia for access to the Mediterranean. Truman knew he couldnt get money from Congress to assume Englands role. The Truman Doctrine stated that the stakes are higher than just Greece and the Turkey in the conflict that was arising and the House and Senate approved. It said that the Greek communists are evil and the U.S. must stop this evil everywhere. This was an informal declaration of the Cold War. It was an American commitment to stop the spread of Communism. With this doctrine, Truman intended to "scare the hell" out of the American people. He sold it by creating an image of a fight between good and evil and said that the fate of the universe rests on the U.S. This declaration of a Cold War led to a great increase in military spending, militarization, and an overreaction to the Soviet threat.
84. Marshall Plan
This called for the use of U.S. capital to finance the European economic recovery. The plan depended upon the reaction of Russia and Congress and Russia refused to take part. The U.S. investment payed big dividends and led to a major European industrial revival and a self-sustaining European economy in the 1950's. In this plan, the U.S. manipulated post World War II politics to expand the Cold War. It provided a European revival but was designed to help the American economy which profited from the European trade. The U.S. offered it to both communists and noncommunists to place the communists in a dilemma. If Russia and the other communist countries accept, investment relief agencies would control their countries and they would have to follow capitalist rule. If they reject then they look bad so it is a U.S. victory either way. The Czechs wanted to accept the aid which led to a lot of violent communist demonstrations that overthrew the Czech government. This weakened the Russian economy and made Stalin look bad.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was established in 1949. It grew out of European fear of the Soviet military. This was a historic departure from isolationism because the U.S. pledged to protect Europe. The first main feature of NATO was that the U.S. would defend Europe and extend its atomic shield over them. The second was a reassurance that the U.S. would honor this. Eisenhower became head of NATO and four U.S. divisions were stationed in Europe as the nucleus of the NATO army to deter Soviet attacks. NATO escalated the Cold War. There was no evidence of a planned Soviet invasion and it was an overreaction. NATO led to a similar Soviet alliance and ended up splitting Europe. There was also the SEATO which was a southeast military alliance but NATO was the only one with clout.
George Kennans theory of containment was a moderate approach to the Soviet threat. It said that the U.S. could force Russia to adopt more reasonable policies and live in peace with the U.S. The theory said that Soviet communism is inherently expansionist and therefore will try to take over the world. Soviet communism is also repressive with an incompetent economic system which depends on other countries wealth to survive. It is also expansionist because foreign wars bring support at home. The second aspect of containment is that a line must be drawn and the Soviet Union must be contained. The theory assumes that communism is inherently contradictory and cannot produce enough wealth to satisfy its people so they need only be contained and eventually these contradictions will lead to a break down. Kennan believed that we must be patient with the Soviet Union and he was right but he never thought that itd take 48 years before it would fall. Lincoln said the same thing about the South in the theory of helperism and Marx said that capitalism is contradictory. Containment requires a military line against Soviet expansion. This led to an arms race.
This was a statement of national defense policy based on the premise that the Soviet Union wished to control the world. It proposed a huge increase in spending for the military (from $13 billion to $50 billion) and was a symbol of Trumans desire to win the Cold War.
88. Massive Nuclear Retaliation Brinksmanship
This refers to the United States determination to use full scale nuclear retaliation against the Soviet threat. It contributed to the arms race.
89. Berlin Blockade
In 1948 U.S., British, French, and Soviet troops each occupied a different sector of Berlin which was in the Russian zone. Stalin decided to test Trumans resolve by cutting off all railroad and highway traffic to Berlin. Truman was not prepared for this event since he was busy with the upcoming election. Truman decided to keep the U.S. army in Berlin and organized a large airlift of food, fuel, and supplies to the troops and civilians trapped in the city. He also placed 60 B-29's capable of dropping atomic bombs in England. The bluff worked. Stalin rejected U.S. diplomacy but didnt disrupt the airlift. The U.S. and Russia came very close to war. Truman beat Dewey because of the crisis and the tension slowly eased. In 1949 Russia gave in and ended the blockade. The Berlin crisis marked the end of the initial phase of the Cold War. The airlift was a major political victory for the U.S. Europe was now split between the U.S. and Russia: a situation that would soon spread to a worldwide contest. According to the agreement at Yalta, Germany was supposed to be united once a peace treaty was signed. The U.S. violated Yalta and didnt allow west Germany to pay reparations to Russia because it feared a Russian-German alliance. The U.S. also wished to blackmail Russia to allow an open eastern Europe. The U.S. and England wanted a divided Germany to exclude the Soviets and combined their territories with the French and called it Trizonia. Therefore the Berlin Blockade was legal as a response to a separate West Germany created by the U.S.
90. Baruch Plan
After World War II, the U.S. disarmament was to turn control of all fissionable material, nuclear plants, and bombs over to an international agency. Bernard Baruch insisted on changing the policy, adding sanctions against violators and exemption of the international agency from UN veto. The Baruch Plan included multiple stages and a great deal of inspections. It was designed to preserve the U.S. atomic monopoly for the indefinite future.
91. Truman-MacArthur Dispute in Korean War
In Korea, the Soviets controlled the north and the U.S. controlled the south. The north got a lot of military assistance and the south got little. Northern Korea invaded southern Korea and the Soviet role was unclear. Truman convened the UN Security Council and condemned North Korea and called for collective security action. U.S. troops battled in South Korea and the U.S. was essentially at was with a Soviet satellite. The north was victorious at first but after the U.S. stopped their advance Truman had a new goal: the unification of Korea by force. Despite Achesons and MacArthurs reassurances, a Chinese counterattack drove the U.S. out of North Korea and Truman abandoned unification. MacArthur protested and Truman relieved him of his command in 1951. The Korean War became a stalemate and the attempt at unification humiliated the U.S. The war led to an implementation of NSC-68 and the U.S. became committed to a global contest against the Soviet Union. The Korean War showed U.S. policy makers that containment is the best that they can hope for. China handed the U.S. its worst defeat in a battle ever.
The Fair Employment Practices Commission was part of the Fair Deal. Its purpose was to prevent economic discrimination against blacks but it failed along with many other aspects of the Fair Deal.
93. Taft-Hartley Act
In 1946 the Republicans made major gains in Congress which led to bad relations with Truman. Congress overrode his veto of the Taft-Hartley Act which outlawed unfair labor-union activities and allowed an 8-day cooling off period to delay dangerous strikes.
94. Fair Deal
Trumans Fair Deal was a reform package that called for national medical insurance, federal aid for education, an overhaul of the farm subsidy program, and the establishment of the FEPC. The Fair Deal was never enacted except for a higher minimum wage, and Social Security reform. There were no health, education, or civil rights reforms. Truman tried for too much too soon and Congress was controlled by conservative northern Republicans and southern Democrats who were not favorable toward reforms.
95. Loyalty Review Board
Truman created this board in 1947 for security checks of government employees in order to root out communists. Within four years, the Loyalty Review Board led to many government employees losing their jobs because of "reasonable doubt" of their loyalty.
96. McCarthyism, Army-McCarthy Hearings
Joseph McCarthy was a Republican senator who announced a list of 205 people whom he accused of being communists. The list was never substantiated. He triggered a four-year crusade to hunt down communists in government which was dubbed "McCarthyism." McCarthy used multiple untruths and accused people so many times that they couldnt keep up. He was very good with the press and used fear to gain power. He went after powerful Republicans such as Marshall and Acheson. He gave a simple solution to the Cold War: defeat the enemy at home. His attacks on the rich and famous earned him a large national following. He reached the height of his popularity in 1954. In that same year McCarthy went too far and attacked the upper levels of the U.S. army. The Army-McCarthy hearings were televised and the public was disgusted by McCarthys tactics. He was censured and quickly fell from prominence. McCarthy had a great deal of influence in what came to be known as the second red scare. He imposed political and cultural conformity that froze dissent in the 1950's. The difference between the Red Scare of the 1920's and McCarthyism is that while the Red Scare attacked the poor, McCarthy was anti-elitist and went after powerful people. As a result McCarthy had a big following among outcast groups such as Catholics and Jews.
97. Rosenberg, Hiss Trials
Alger Hiss was a high ranking state department official who in 1948 was accused of being a Soviet spy in the 30's. Hiss denied the charges but an investigation found proof against him and he was sentenced to five years in jail. Truman was compelled to take protective measures after this which gave substance to the charges and the hysteria. Events abroad led Americans to have a great sense of danger and the communists were blamed. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were executed for treason.
This is the House Un-American Activities Committee that held hearings indicating that communist agents had flourished in the Agriculture and Treasury departments in the 1930's.
In 1957 the Soviet Union sent the Sputnick satellite into orbit and people said that the U.S. was falling behind Russia. Eisenhower and Congress started missile development and NASA in 1958 to restore confidence in the U.S. Congress gave a lot of money to the space race that ensued which finally culminated in John Glenns flight in 1962. The Sputnick escalated the Cold War because it led to the fear that the Soviet Union was ahead in the manufacture of Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs.) Eisenhower was confident but increased spending on ICBMs and IRBMs. Khrushchev used the Sputnick to put the U.S. on the defensive.
100. Highway Act of 1956
This created an interstate highway system to connect major U.S. cities. It had a huge influence on American life. It boosted the economy, shortened travel time, and led to more and more automobile dependence.
101. Brown v. Topeka, Kansas Board of Ed.
In this 1954 Supreme Court decision, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled for desegregation of the nations schools. Eisenhower refrained from supporting the decision. Eisenhower was not racist but believed that laws cant change peoples minds. The case was decided under Chief Justice Earl Warren.
102. Montgomery Bus Boycott
The shift from legal struggles in the courts to protests began in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955. Rosa Parks violated a city ordinance by refusing to give up her seat to a white person. After her arrest, African Americans protested and found a new leader in Martin Luther King Jr. who led a major boycott of the citys bus system. At first King protested to have seating on the buses based on a first come first serve basis but then became more assertive and called for an end to segregated seating. The boycott was successful and the Supreme Court ruled the Alabama law to be unconstitutional. King became the leader of the civil rights movement.
Martin Luther King Jr. founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference as a crusade against segregation. King used passive resistance and nonviolence in order to draw support for his cause. The SCLC along with the SNCC soon replaced the NAACP court actions at the forefront of the civil rights movement. This led to both success and tension.
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was established in 1960 after some black students had been denied service at a restaurant and wouldnt leave. Other students followed their actions and this led to the desegregation of many public facilities. Some of them were arrested but the movement spread. The group started out as an integration minded youth groups but in the mid 1960's, the SNCC was led by black militant leaders such as H. Rap Brown and came to be at the forefront of the black power movement. Stokely Carmichael, head of the SNCC, said that southern blacks should seize power. He also advocated ethnic separation. The black militants wanted a separate black society, more black pride and nationalism, and affirmative action.
The civil rights movement did not accept President Kennedys indirect approach to the movement. In 1961 the Congress of Racial Equality was founded and it sponsored the "freedom rides" which were a test of segregated commerce.
106. Greensboro, NC Lunch Counter Sit-ins
Four African-American students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College refused to move after being denied service in a lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. Other students joined in the "sit-in" movement and it led to the desegregation of many public facilities. The movement sparked further passive resistance and led to the establishment of the SNCC.
107. Freedom Rides
These tests of segregated commerce were sponsored by CORE. This led to the ICC finally banning segregation in interstate commerce. After the ban, the freedom rides ended,
108. Birmingham, Alabama
Martin Luther King Jr. forced Kenned to come out openly in favor of racial justice. In 1963, he began a huge protest in Birmingham, Alabama for desegregation and the opening up of jobs for African Americans. The protesters were harassed by the police. Many people, including King, were arrested. "Bull" Connor, the police commissioner of Alabama, was determined to crush the civil rights movement. After his police force used brutality against a childrens protest, the civil rights movement gained a lot of strength and Kennedy finally began to support civil rights legislation.
109. Gideon v. Wainwright, Miranda v. Arizona, Escobedo v. Illinois
These three decisions were made under the Warren Court in 1963, 1966, and 1964 respectively. These decisions extended traditional rights afforded the accused in federal courts to state and local courts. The majority decreed that defendants had to be provided lawyers, informed of their constitutional rights, and could not be interrogated or induced to confess to a crime without having a lawyer present.
110. Baker v. Carr
In this 1962 decision, the Court ruled that Tennessee redistribute its legislative seats to give the citizens of Memphis equal representation. This was among the most far-reaching Warren Court decisions having to do with legislative reapportionment. These cases led to a storm of criticism.
111. 1964 Civil Rights Act
President Lyndon B. Johnson refused to compromise on the issue of civil rights and he embraced the movement. Johnsons actions led to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which banned segregation in public facilities, established the Employment Opportunity Commission, and protected voting rights.
112. 1965 Voting Rights Act
Martin Luther King Jr. used Selma, Alabama as a test case to achieve black voting rights. The sheriff there used bullwhips, and cattle prods against the demonstrators and this led to a public outcry. Subsequently, Johnson pushed through the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which banned literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting in all states where less than half of the population had voted in the 1964 elections. The act had tremendous results: 166,000 African Americans were added to the Alabama voting rolls. African Americans had a prominent role in southern politics for the first time since Reconstruction.
113. New Frontier
After his election in 1960, Kennedy championed traditional Democratic reforms and labeled them the New Frontier. Kennedy relied on academics and intellectuals to infuse the U.S. with energy and a new sense of direction. Due to a logjam in Congress, none of Kennedys reform bills encompassing health care, education, federal aid, and other reforms were passed. Kennedy gave up health care and instead pushed for a small increase in the minimum wage and more man power training, both of which were passed. The conservative coalition in Congress led to the lack of and significant legislation during the Kennedy years. The Dixiecrats controlled Congress and since the 1890's, it had been controlled by a committee system based on seniority. The New Frontier had a lack of fundamental laws and it failed.
114. Great Society
During the 1964 election, Lyndon B. Johnson embraced liberal reform and called it "The Great Society." Johnson won by a large margin and broke the conservative grip on Congress. Johnson moved quickly to pass his legislation and health care and education got the highest priority. Medicare was passed which provided Social Security insurance for all Americans over the age of 65. Johnson also overcame the religious hurdle in education and started the childrens benefit approach: federal money for parochial and public schools. The Elementary and Secondary School Act of 1965 provided more than a billion dollars in federal aid for schools. Under Johnson, the 89th Congress passed 89 bills, including the creation of the departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Affairs, highway safety acts, clean air and water acts, federal aid for education, public housing, and a war on poverty.
115. Quemoy and Matsu, Formosa
In 1954 crisis in the Formosa Straits provided a test of Eisenhowers firm policy of driving a wedge between China and the Soviet Union. Communist China threatened to seize control of coastal islands, notably Quemoy and Matsu, that were occupied by Chinese nationalists. Eisenhower resolved to defend Formosa but was unclear on the issue of wether the U.S. would defend Quemoy or Matsu. The U.S. threatened nuclear retaliation and China did not wish to test the U.S. and decided not to attack. The Soviet Union did not aid the Chinese which led to a rift between the two countries in the 1950's which the U.S. failed to capitalize on.
116. Suez Crisis
In 1956, a large crisis erupted in the Middle East when the Egyptian President Nasser seized the Suez canal. England and France were dependent on the canal and they were ready to use force to defend it. Eisenhower favored diplomacy with Nasser instead of intervention and the canal kept running. England and France invaded Egypt and seized the canal. Eisenhower was furious but still would not tolerate Soviet interference in the conflict. The U.S. once again threatened nuclear retaliation against Egypt. England and France ended their invasion and Eisenhower was re-elected. The Suez Crisis established the U.S. as the main western influence in the Middle East and created a new battleground for the Cold War. Russia supported Egypt and Syria.
117. Beirut 1958
In Lebanon in 1958, the power was divided between Moslems and Christians and the Moslems threatened a rebellion. A pro-western government had recently been overthrown in Iraq and Eisenhower decided to intervene in Lebanon in the interest of political stability. The U.S. military landed in Beirut landed in Beirut to "show the flag" and a settlement was reached which restored the pro-western government.
118. Guatemala 1954
In 1954 the CIA overthrew a leftist government in Guatemala to deny the Soviets a foothold in the Western Hemisphere. Latin Americans despised the U.S. intervention.
119. Iran 1953
In 1953 the CIA was instrumental in overthrowing the Iranian government and placing the Shah in control. The U.S. got oil concessions as a result and Eisenhower thought that he had gained a valuable ally along the Russian border. However, this short-term victory resulted in deep-seeded animosity toward the U.S. by Iranians.
In 1958, the Soviet Union wanted to sign a peace treaty with East Germany calling for an end to western occupation of Berlin. Eisenhower refused to abandon Berlin but tried to avoid a military showdown. Due to diplomacy, the Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev extended the deadline for negotiations indefinitely and the two leaders agreed to a summit conference in Paris in 1960. Unfortunately, the meeting never took place. The Soviet Union shot down a U-2 spy plane flown by Gary Powers and Khrushchev refused to meet with Eisenhower as a result. Due to the U-2 incident, disarmament negotiations collapsed.
121. Flexible Response
President Kennedy desired the ability to use a flexible response against the communist threat. This policy meant a large military arsenal and budget which allows for a lot of options. This policy is dangerous because it provides for a temptation to test U.S. power on the Soviet Union. Kennedys plan called for a lot of air divisions and strategic response divisions. He called Eisenhower inflexible. JFK relied on both a conventional military and special forces such as the green berets. He believed that there was a big missile gap between the U.S. and Russia and that Russia was winning the war.
122. Bay of Pigs
Eisenhower had planned to overthrow the Cuban leader Fidel Castro with the CIA since 1960 and he initiated the Bay of Pigs invasion. Kennedy was panicked by Castro, a very popular romantic figure whom he resented. Kennedy tried to assassinate the Cuban leader with a series of bizarre plots. In 1961 1400 Cuban exiles invaded the Bay of Pigs and were defeated by Castros forces. Kennedy took the blame but did not express remorse. He said that the U.S. would continue to act against Castro and communist expansion. Castro was still very popular and the invasion was impossible to disguise which led to a major public relations blunder. The Bay of Pigs invasion led to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
123. Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1962, American spy planes discovered Soviet missile sites in Cuba which had been placed there to prevent further U.S. attacks on Cuba. Kennedy sought a showdown with Khrushchev which was secret at first including a quarantine of Cuba and a nuclear threat. This was the despite the fact that Kennedy had already determined that the missiles were not a military threat. Khrushchev made a mistake by negotiating secretly because there was no way for anyone to protest if it was done secretly. If the Russians didnt cooperate, Kennedy intended to invade Cuba and dismantle the missiles. The world was on the brink of a nuclear crisis: the navy was sent to block Soviet ships and a large invasion force was prepared. Khrushchev liked Castro but communism had spread to Cuba on its own. The Russian leader wanted to convince Kennedy to withdraw the U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey and promise not to invade Cuba. Kennedy realized that this was a political problem and that he had to do something about it so he announced the quarantine and Khrushchev backed down. Kennedy had already decided to compromise and back down until Khrushchev beat him to it. Kennedy then secretly agreed not to invade Cuba and withdraw the Jupiter missiles and the crisis ended. Kennedy had won a major personal and political victory which led to a great deal of national pride. There were a lot of psychotic consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Although Khrushchev had gotten what he wanted, the Soviets were humiliated publicly and this led to the buildup of their arms and navy. Khrushchev shouldve negotiated openly because as a result of his secrecy, illusions matter more than the reality. After the crisis, the right wing became convinced that the U.S. needed to be tough against Russia. A "hot line" was also established between the White House and the Kremlin for immediate communication during an emergency.
124. Tonkin Gulf Resolution
In 1964, seven different governments controlled south Vietnam and there was widespread discontent there. There was a lot of U.S. support for covert operations which materialized amphibious raids on north Vietnam. This led to the Gulf of Tonkin Affair. In 1964, the north Vietnamese attacked the USS Maddox, and intelligence gatherer in the Gulf of Tonkin. The Maddox escaped and another destroyer was called in and the two ships began to attack north Vietnamese gunboats. Johnson ordered air strikes on north Vietnamese naval bases. He asked Congress to allow for all necessary measures against an attack on U.S. forces and other acts of aggression. This Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was designed to show American defense of southern victory and was approved by Congress. The resolution was a costly victory and made the U.S. more likely to use force in the future. This was the beginning of Johnsons political downfall.
125. Tet Offensive
The Vietcong used the traditional lull in fighting at Tet, the lunar New Year, to launch a surprise attack in heavily populated cities. What came to be known as the Tet Offensive was the turning point of the war in Vietnam. Although it was a big military defeat for the communists, it was a big political victory for them as well because the U.S. appeared to be losing. Johnson realized the stalemate situation and decreased the bombing to open up peace negotiations with Hanoi. The Tet Offensive killed popular support for the war in the U.S. and Johnson decided not to run for a second term.
126. Paris Peace Talks
In 1973 a cease-fire agreement was signed in Paris which ended direct American military involvement in Vietnam. When north Vietnam attempted to make last-minute changes, Nixon ordered B-52 raids on Hanoi and a truce was signed. The Vietnamese agreed to return all U.S. prisoners of war in exchange for a complete U.S. withdrawal within sixty days. North Vietnam got control of the south. The agreement was a disguised surrender on the part of the U.S.
President Nixon gave foreign policy top priority. He was a revolutionary President in terms of foreign policy. He pulled out of Vietnam because under the influence of Henry Kissinger, he had a bigger goal. Nixon made his name as an anticommunist but during his presidency he began to look at the communists with a real politik view. He saw the Cold War as a rivalry between two great rivals and realized that the Soviet Union was a sovereign state acting in its own best interest. Instead of looking at China and Russia as a common enemy, Nixon realized that each country had its own interests. He attempted to play one country against the other. Nixon withdrew from Vietnam in order to allow China and the Soviet Union to stop joining together against the blazing issue of Vietnam. After the withdrawal, the tensions between China and the Soviet Union came out into the open. This policy of detente, or relaxation of tensions, started with improving relations with China was aimed at both the Soviet Union and China. This remarkable vision was not however, a retreat from globalism. Russia responded to detente by agreeing to an arms control pact resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) that had been underway since 1969. In 1972 Nixon signed two vital documents dealing with disarmament with Brezhnev, the new Soviet leader. The irony of detente is that once it takes place with the beginning of SALT and the Helsinki Accords (the U.S. guaranteed to stop boundary changes in Eastern Europe in exchange for a Soviet pledge of human rights), underground groups began to arise in Russia which eventually led to the fall of the Soviet Union. Therefore, the Soviet collapse was started by Nixon even though this was not his intention. The Soviet Union began its downfall because wars create internal unity but with the new policy of coexistence, there are no wars and this leads to internal tension.
128. Andrew Mellon
Andrew Mellon was the Secretary of the Treasury under Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. Mellon condemned the high war tax and wanted a return to "normalcy" in taxation. Under his lead, the revenue acts of the 1920's increased taxes dramatically to one third of what they were in 1921 by 1929. He also provided a lot of relief for the wealthy since he was wealthiest man in the country at the time.
129. Harold Ickes
He was the conservative head of the PWA in 1933 who didnt spend his whole budget. He was interested in the quality of the projects rather than human needs and therefore failed to put many people to work.
130. Harry Hopkins
He was the head of the CWA and put over four million people to work by 1934. He was a radical leader and spent a lot of money. Roosevelt was appalled at the amount of money that Hopkins spent and shut down the CWA and forced Hopkins to return to federal relief payments as the only source of aid for the unemployed. Hopkins then headed the WPA and put a lot of unemployed people on the federal payroll.
131. Dean Acheson
Acheson was an experienced Washington lawyer who was appointed undersecretary of state in 1947 and was given free rein by Marshall to conduct American diplomacy. He was an Anglophile who wanted the U.S. to take over Englands role as the main force in world affairs. He opposed appeasement and advocated negotiating from strength. He and George Kennan were the main influences on foreign policy during the Truman years.
132. John Foster Dulles
Dulles was secretary of state under Eisenhower and a myth developed that he had been given free rein by Eisenhower to conduct diplomacy. Eisenhower let Dulles make the public appearances but was consulted by Dulles on all major foreign policy matters. Dulles hardline views placated Republican extremists.
133. C. Wright Mills
Mills was a writer in the U.S. during the 50's who commenting on American society. Mills criticized the new middle-class in his books White Collar (1951) and Power Elite (1956.) Mills believed that the corporation was evil.
134. David Riesman
Riesman was the most influential social critic during the 1950's. His 1950 book, The Lonely Crowd, set the tone for intellectual commentary about suburbia for the rest of the decade. He emphasized the shift from traditional frugal Americans to the new consumer society of the 50's. The resulting decline in individualism and sensitivity to the expectations of others produced a bland and tolerant society lacking creativity and adventure, he said.
135. Francis Townsend
Townsend was a physician who in 1934 came up with a scheme to assist the elderly who had been suffering greatly during the Depression. The Townsend Plan proposed giving everyone over the age of sixty a monthly pension of $200 that must be spent within thirty days. The proposal was designed more to stimulate the economy than to help the elderly but it still had its greatest appeal with the elderly who embraced it as a holy cause and joined Townsend Clubs across the country. It was widely popular despite the fact that it would give over half of the national income to less than 10% of the population.
136. Huey Long
Long was a Louisiana senator who turned against FDR and by 1935 became a major political threat to the president. Nicknamed the Kingfish, he introduced a nationwide "Share the Wealth" movement in 1934. His plan called for taking money from the rich to give to the poor. He threatened to run as a third-party candidate in 1936 and this scared the Democrats. Although he was assassinated in 1935, his popularity showed the need for the New Deal to do more to help the distressed.
137. Father Coughlin
Coughlin was a Roman Catholic priest from Detroit who originally supported FDR but turned against him. He appealed to the discontented with a mixture of strange monetary schemes and anti-Semitism. He broke with the New Deal and in 1934 founded the National Union for Social Justice and called for inflation, and the nationalization of the banking system in his weekly radio addresses.
138. Henry Stimson
Stimson was the Secretary of State under Hoover and in 1932 he issued notes saying that the U.S. wouldnt recognize the Japanese seizure of Manchuria. The Japanese ignored the moral sanction and incorporated Manchuria into their empire.
139. Jack Kerouac
Kerouacs novel On the Road (1957) set the tone for the new "beat" movement in the 1950's. They were literary groups that rebelled against the materialism of the time and bemoaned the moral bankruptcy. Their conversational writing styles and personal subject matters influenced other poets.
140. Rosa Parks
See #102 Montgomery Bus Boycott.
141. Martin Luther King
King was the leader of the civil rights movement in the 1960's. He drew on very diverse sources: from Ghandi to Thoreau. He used passive resistance and a non-violent appeal. King founded the SCLC. King disagreed with the black militants and made references to the Bible and Messianic times in his speeches. King organized many protests and marches such as the Montgomery protests and the March on Washington. His influence waned during the rise of the black power movement and he was assassinated in the late 1960's.
142. Jim Clark and Bull Connor
Clark was the sheriff in Selma who led the police in using cattle prods and bullwhips against civil-rights demonstrators. Eugene "Bull" Connor was the Montgomery police commissioner determined to crush the civil rights movement.
143. Earl Warren
The biggest impulse for change in the 1960's came from the Supreme Court under the direction of Chief Justice Earl Warren. The Warren Court ruled against segregation and protected the civil rights of the McCarthy victims. The Court angered conservatives by reversing the conviction of 14 communists in 1956 in Yates V. U.S. In 1962, there was a large liberal majority in the Court which led to many landmark decisions to give those accused state and local courts the same rights as those accused in federal courts. The activism of the Warren Court led to a lot of criticism and people said the Court encouraged crime and weakened national security. The Court also banned school prayer, and permitted pornography which led conservatives to charge that they had undermined traditional moral values.
II. Maps to Know
Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Mexico, Midway, Guadalcanal, Soviet Union, Normandy (D-day), Iran, China, Greece, Turkey, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, Panama, Lebanon, and Guatemala.
* Please note that this review sheet is based on both notes from the textbook and class notes from Dr. Jucovy. Therefore, some of the information may not apply to students of Dr. Stone.
** In the unlikely event that there is a falsehood in this document, I will not be held responsible.
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