The Spread of Christianity

Last Judgement

Similar to Jewish concept of Mashiach. When Jesus died for all the sins of the people who believed in him so they would be redeemed. Jesus got many of his ideas from John the Baptist, The Tanakh & Torah, and the Essenes. His followers belied that everybody commited original sin: Adam & Eve

Virgin birth

Jesus was the son of god - parthenogenesis. Jesus was a false prophet but he really did exist Jesus went against certain Halachic standads. He did not directly deny being the Mashiach.

Paulís Doctrine:

1. Jesus was born to save people from original sin

2. Jesus was god in the form of a human

3. Jesus died for the sins of all people

Lent - A 40 day period in which not meat is eaten that is before easter.

Holy Sepulchre - The church under which Jusus is supposedly burried. Located on the Mount of Calvary.

Gethsemane ___-__- The garden where Jesus was turned in by Judas Iscariot. He was the 13th Desciple.

Turtullian said that the greek philosophers undermined religion.


Marcus Arelius 160-180

Emporer of Rome. Was the last stoic leader of the Roman Empire. Under his rule the economy of Rome was stable, there was security, and the borders were secure. Picked his own son to succes him, and he was not fit for the job. The empire then fell into military anarchy in the 3d Century.

Saint Paul 5-67

Lived in Palestine and started preaching Jesusí ideas. Real name was Saul of Tarsus. Paul believed that Jesus was the messiah and that he was God in human form.

Julian 361-363

The last emporer of Rome to reject christianity as his religioun Julian died a violent death after he allowed the Jews to rebuild the temple. The project was scrapped after an earthquake in Palestine.

Saint Augustine 354-430

Was the bishop of Hippo in North Africa. Started out as a pagan, learned philosophy and then coverted to christianity after being inspired by a speech made by Saint Ambrose. Wrote The City of God after the destruction of Rome and The Confessions.

Virgil 70-19 B.C.E.

Famous Roman author. Wrote an epic commissioned by the Emporer Augustus. Epic was about Eniade - the establishment of Rome. This epic connected Homerís epics with Romeís history.

Yehuda Haí Nassi 150-225

Lived in Tiberius/Tzippori. Was the president of the Sanhedrin. He edited the Mishna in the year 200 C.E.

Hillel II ca. 350

Devised a formula for calculating the Jewish months forever. This was esential after the abolition of the Sanhedrin, so the Jews could know what time the holidays would start.

Saint Ambrose d. 397

Was a prominent church father. Was the bishop of Milan, Italy. In 388 a synogogue was bured down in Mesopotamia and Theodosius I ordered the bishop to rebuild it. Ambrose wrote a letter protesting the rebuilding of the synagogue. Ambrose was not particularly fond of the Jewish people.

Saint Jerome

Best known for his translation of the New Testemant into Latin. He called it the Vulgate, which means common language.

Andrianople 378

Major battle between the Visigoths and Rome. Worst Roman battle since defeat at Canae. Almost 2/3 of the Roman army was killed. Emporer at the time was Valens. Significance of this battle was that the empire could no longer enforce its borders.


A savage Mongolian tribes. The Huns swept accross Asia and Europe in the 4th Century C.E. and looted Roman cities. Accompanied by Germanic tribesman.

Goths, Visigoths, Ostragoths, Vandals

A group of Germanic tribes that migrated southwest from Asia and looted cities throughout the empire during the Fourth Century.


The capital of the Wester Roman Empire. Located on the straigt of Bosphorus in Asia Minor, its name was then chaneged by Constantine to Constantinpole. Now it is called Istambul, Turkey.

Diocletian 285-305

Emporer. Tried to reduce famines and military anarchy, had to consolidate over 500,000 troops from all parts of the empire. Had to get rid of the Germanic tribes; had to protect Rome from aggression by Persia. Wore robes and jewels and immitated near eastern customs. Split empire into East/West and named capital of West Byzantium. Diocletian also bound pesants to their land, thus creating virtual serfs. The occupations had to be passed down from generation to generation.

Constantine 306-337

Emporor elected by Diocletian to rule the Western Empire. Tried to get rid of the Germanic tribes; had to protect Rome from aggression by Persia. Was the first Roman emporer to convert to christianity; capital of eastern empire named after him -- Constantinople. Constantine helped prevent the Western collapse.

Pax Romana 96-180

A period of relative peace in the empire. There were no civil wars, the economy was stable, the empire was militarily secure, and slave rights improved. The disadvantages to the Pax Romana were unemployment and poor transportation. Also known as the period of the Five Good Emporers.



Roman provincial tax colector. If they did not collect the required amount of money, they were forced to pay the government out of their own pockets.


A government ruled by two people. An example of this is when the Roman Empire split up into the Eastern & Western Empires.

Ius Natural

A set of laws that applied to all people in the empire. It bound all people to their communities. The laws were created using reason and rational thought.

Ius Gentium

The law that originated when the empire came to power. It governed the ways that Roman citizens were to interact with foreigners.

Jesus 0-29

Jesus was born in Palestine. Son of Joseph. Jesus was Jewish but did not believe in all mitzvot. Thought that personal relations were more important than relationships with the Shabbat, etc. Raised in Nazereth, in the Galilee.

Gospels 70-90

Jewish in birth, shared common ideas, wrote about Jesus. St. Mark, St. Matthew, St. Luke, St. John (ca. 110 - denied his Jewish roots).


A.K.A. Mass; Eucharist. Blessing over wine and wafer which supposedly connects Christians to the flesh and blood of Jesus.

Edict of Milan 313

A decree by the Roman emporer which made Christianity a legal religion of the empire together with Jewdaism.

Paulís Doctrine

1. Jesus was born to save people from original sin.

2. Jesus was God in the form of a human.

3. Jesus died for the sins of all people.

Doctrine of the Witness

A doctrine formulated by the church which said that Jewdaism was the proof that Jesus existed and that there are refrences to him in the Old Testemant.

Concil of Elvira 379

A council of about 300 in Spain who made laws concerning the relations between a Catholic and a Jew. The church prohibited marrage between the two faiths, and even restricted social interaction with the Jews. The council also forbade Rabbis from giving Catholics blessings for rain.

Latin Chrisindom

The Christian empire that was formed in place of the Western Roman Emire. This empire was dependant on churches that were loyal to the Pope and the Vatican in Rome.

Holy See The Holy See refers to the headquarters of the bishop. See means a chair of authority, which is occupied by the Pope.

Catholic a "universal" faith.

Vatican The Holy See of the Catholic faith. Locatedc in Rome.

Pope Pius XII

During WWII, he did not react to the atrocities that were commited to the Jews and he did not mind the Nazis.

The Seven Sacraments

1. Priesthood

2. Baptism

3. Marrige in the Church

4. Mass / Communion / Eucharist

5. Divine Unction

6. Confession & Penance

7. Confirmation

Byzantine Civilization

Capital located in Byzantium, now known as Constantinople.

Collapse of the Byzantine Empire -

Islamic Civilization

3 Key Cities:

Mecca The home of Mohammed, the founder of Islam.

Medina Was conquered by Mohammed and his followers. North of Mecca.

Jerusalem 3rd holiest city of Islam. Abraham visited heaven from the rock on the Temple Mount.

Hegira when Mohammed went to Medina. Derived from _____.

Mohammed ca. 622-632

The prophet of Islam, he was born in Mecca, on the Arabian Peninsula. He wrote down the Koran and went to preach about his new religion. He was a merchant who had contact with other religions. He liked the idea of one God and was impressed by the moral lessons of both major religions.

Haj The annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.

Kaaba The site where Mohammed asended to heaven. According to tradition, he was launched from this rock aboard his horse Alburak.

5 Pillars of Faith -

1. Alah is God

2. One must pray 5 times a day facing Mecca.

3. Generosity

4. Fasting from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan.

5. One must make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca during his lifetime.

Caliphs subtitutes for Mohammed.

Umar the Caliph who ordered the construction of the Dome of the Rock.

Ali Mohammedís son-in-law. He was murdered

Abbasids The dynasty of Caliphs in Damascus and then later in Baggdad.

Sunna Muslim traditional Muslims. People who follow this form of Islam are called Sunnity.

Shia The other Muslim sect. They do not believe in the Sunna, and they say that Ali is the official Capliph.

Dhimmis "people of the book" they will be tolerated in Muslim society, but could not wear green, ride horses, and had to pay double taxes. Also, their houses of worship couldnít be taller than mosques.

Minaret A tall, slim tower that projects high into the air above a mosque. It is used to call the people to prayer; similar to a church steeple.

The Middle Ages

Saint Patrick (5th Century). Converted the Irish to Christianity. St. Patrick is also creddited with driving all the snakes out of Ireland.

Boethius 480-525

Studied at the Platonic Academy in Athens. Later, he lived in Italy and was the last writer to know Latin and Greek well enough to understand Greco-Roman philosophy. He wrote the Conselation of Philosophy in prison while awaiting his execution.

Isidore of Seville 576-636

Wrote the Etimological Encyclopedia. It was not very good, but it was the last encyclopedia of its time. In it , Isidore of Seville quoted passages from the Bible and described miracles.

Cassiodorus 590-675

Wrote a 12 volume history of the Goths. He also established monastic libraries containing Greek and Latin manuscripts.

Gregory the Great Pope 590-604

He started out as a priest, then a monk, then a bishop, and then Pope. He wanted to improve the relationship between the Papacy and the Monks. He aslo established the idea that the Pope was the head of all Cristians. Furthermore, he also took control of Rome as a municipal leader during its time of crisis.

Charlemagne 768-814

Was king of the Franks for 46 years. He expanded the Frankish kingdom and conquered the Goths. He was loyal to the Vatican. He divided his empire into 250 counties, which were ruled by counts. Sent Missi Dominici to inspect the counties. Charlemagneís son Louis the Pius collapsed the kingdom. Furthermore, he promoted literacy and urged moks to copy manuscripts.

Agricultural Revolution - Advancements & Improvements to Agriculture

Trade Improvements - Due to various factors.

Magna Carta 1215

The Magna Carta was a bill of rights that King John was forced to sign by the barrons of England. It gave the barrons certain rights, including rules about taxes.

William the Conquerer 1027-1087

William was the duke of Normandy. He kept a full 1/6 of English territory for himself. Because of the feudal system, William divided the rest of the land among his noblemen in exchange for military support. He Established the Shire System, in which a sheriff was in charge of each county. Also, he wrote the Domesday Book, which was a census of all the people and their property.

Henry I 1100-1135

Henry I was the grandson of William the Conquerer. He created a uniform law code for England from old Anglo-Saxon, feudal and Church law, thereby establishing a burocracy.

King John 1199-1216

John was the king of England was financing a costly war with France, and he repeatadly taxed his vassals. By 1215, the barrons got angry and forced hime to sign the Magna Carta.

Hugh Capet 987-996

The Carolingian dynasty chose Hugh Capet to be the king of France in 987. He was elected because he had less land then most of the nobles and he wasnít thought of as a threat. He continued his dynasty by unifying France and having nobles elect his own son as his succesor.

Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122-1204

Married to Louis VII, Eleanor of Aquitaine was the richest queen in Europe at the time. She owned and controlled Ĺ of England and Ĺ of France simultaneously.

The Charter Concerning Austrian Jews, 1244 - From the Marcus Book.

The Decline of Germany

Medieval Society

Feudalism The political system based on the Lord / Vassal relationship.

Lord Was the owner of the manor. He owned knights and servents and had serfs work the land for him.

Vassal Has to give their lord hospitality and support him with knights. He must also give the Lord gifts and judge his cases. In exchange, the lord gives him protection.

Castelany The area surrounding the castle; ruled by a castallane.

Liege Lord The lord to whom the vassal is most loyal to. Each vassal could have more than one lord and vis-versa.

Homage The ceremony for becomming a vassal

Fief A gift of land.

Manorialism The social system of the Middle Ages based on the manor system.

Manorial Hierarchy -

King (if present)

1. Lord & his family

2. Knights

3. Serfs

Serfs Grow their own food on the Lordís land. They must pay a certain % of the crop to the Lord. They:

1. Couldnít leave the manor w/o permission.

2. Couldnít get married w/o permission.

3. Couldnít marry members of society w/higher social status.

4. Had to grind their wheat in the Lordís mill.

Banalités A tax on a minor thing.

Capitation An annual tax on each serf (a head tax).

Taille Property tax.

Heriot A tax which a serf had to pay in order to leave the property to his son.

Noble Women The noble women were of high class. They had servants and any unmarried women would join a convent to become nuns.

High Middle Ages 1050-1300s

The height of medieval culture and society. Also the time when the Church split up into the Byzantine(Greek Orthodox) Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

Messianic Pretenders

Moshe of Crete 5th Century

Moshe of Crete was a messianic pretender in the 400's. He claimed that he would part the Medditerrainian Sea so that the Jews could walk across it to get to the land of Israel. He led hundreds of people to their deaths after jumping off a cliff into the Sea.

Abu-Issa al-Isfahani 7th Century

Abu-Issa al-Isfahani claimed to be the messiah. He established rules for his followers which prohibited divorce and banned meat and alcohol. He was later killed in battle.

David al-Roy 12th Century

David al-Roy lived in Baggdad and claimed to have magical powers. He planned to fly to Israel.

Shabtai-Zvi ca. 1666

The Shabtai-Zvi proposed many new ideas to Judaism. He proposed the integration of men and women in society and wanted the Torah to be read directly from a book. He then ran away and converted to Islam.

Jacob Frank ca. 1750

Jacob Frank claimed to be a reincarnation of the Shabtai-Zvi. He led hudreds of his Jewish followers to convert to Christianity.

Anan Ben-David

The son of the exilarch in Babylonia. He did not succeed his father and founded the Karaites, who denied the __________.

Exilarch The leader of the Jews in the exile (Babylonia).

Rosh Yeshivah Sura & Pompedina were the 2 main yeshivot in Baggdad.

Late Middle Ages

Gothic Cathedrals

These immesnse cathedrals too hudreds of years to build. They utilized special construction techniques such as butrices and gothic overlapping arches.


Scholasticism was a late Medieval school of thought that combined reason with faith. Founded by St. Thomas Aquinas, one of their main principles was that even thought reason cannot explain everything, faith was still superior.

Peter Abalard 1070s

Peter Abalard was a famous scholastic philosopher. He is most famous for having an affair with one of his students, and as a punishment, he was castrated.

R` Solomon Ben Adret 1235-1316

Solomon B. Adret was an orthodox rabbi in Spain, also known as ____ ____. He believed that keeping the mitzvot and one could not study secular philosophy until completing the study of Torah at 25 years of age.

Shmuel Ha Nagid 993-1056

Shmuel Ha Nagid was the leader of the Spanish Jewish community. He wrote peotry, prose, and was a major advisor to the king when the master advisor died.

St. Anslem 1033-1109

St. Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274

Thomas Aquinas was a famous scholastic who wrote such works as Summa Theologica, which summarized the scholastic point of view.

Albertus Magnus 13th Century

Also known as Albert the Great. He was a philosopher who used imperial reasoning as he was Aristotilian.

The Disputations 1263

The Disputations took place in Barcelona, Spain, and were ordered by King James to proclaim the truth of Chritianity. The two debaters were R` Moses Ben Nachman and Pablo Christiani, a convert from Judaism.

R` Moses Ben Nachman 13th Century

Key participant in the Disputations, representing Judaism. He didnít want to participate, but was offered free speech by King James.

Pablo Christiani 13th Century

A converted Jew whoís real name was Saul. He was on the Churchís side in the Disputations.

The Great Scism 1376

The Great Scism displayed the hierarchical unrest in the 14th Century Catholic Church. Urban VI was the Pope, and when he was removed from office by popular demand, he refused to leave, and Clement VII was elected as well. At this time there were two popes at the same time who ruled in Avignon.