American History Review
America Past & Present, 4th Ed.
Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, Williams
Sections I & II
1. Salem Witch Trials
In 1692 a great deal of people were accused of practicing witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. The accused were both male and female. The Anti-Parris or accused witches were generally wealthier than the Pro-Parris or accusers. This data shows that many of the poorer residents were angry and resentful toward the rich and therefore falsely accused the rich of witchcraft.
2. Great Awakening
Created a general awareness of an obligation to conduct public & private affairs according to Scripture. This was a religious awakening in the early 18th century.
3. French and Indian Wars
Also called the Seven Years War, this war put England in major debt and was one of the primary reasons for the introduction of heavy taxes on the American colonists as well as the origin for the stationing of British troops in America.
4. Quebec Act
This act imposed by the British in 1774 allowed Roman Catholics to worship their own religion in Quebec. This hurt Bostonís economy because it prevented them from settling the fertile Quebec area. It also led to the false American belief that King George had a secret alliance with the French king. This act was especially intolerable to the colonists who were Puritans because they viewed the Roman Catholic religion as Satanic.
5. Virtual vs. Direct Representation
England had a policy that was called Virtual Representation where Parliament was supposed to represent the English people even though they did not necessarily live in the place that they were elected. England believed in Parliamentary Sovereignty. This means that due to its historical rule in England, Parliament had the power to command and enforce commands. Americans disagreed with this principle. The colonists believed in Direct Representation where the elected lived in the place that he was elected. Americans also believed that there should be elections often, unlike the British. Moreover, Americans did not have the same sense of Parliamentary Sovereignty as did the British. The colonists were very much against what they called "taxation without representation."
6. First Continental Congress
This was a gathering of 55 elected delegates from 12 of the colonies in 1774 in Philadelphia. Such important figures as Adams, Henry, Henry Lee, Gadsden, and George Washington were present. The delegates didnít really know each other and this led to many differences of opinion between radicals and conservatives. Samuel Adams engineered the Suffolk Resolves which encouraged forcible resistance to the coercive acts. This gathering also created the "Association" which was a colonial agreement to halt all commerce with England until they repealed the intolerable acts. This was a very revolutionary act.
7. Second Continental Congress
This second convention was also held in Philadelphia in 1775. They formed an army under the leadership of general George Washington. Parliament issued the Prohibitory Act as a response to this in 1775. This act halted all American trading.
8. Declaration of Independence
After congress voted for independence in 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It contained a great deal of John Lockeís theories on the rights of man. This document is famous for the principle that "all men are created equal." Unlike the document issued previously by the Stamp Act Congress, the Declaration devoted most of its argument to explicitly charging King George with deliberately trying to destroy the liberty of the colonies. This showed that the colonies were no longer loyal to the king. It contains no reference to Parliament because the colonists did not accept it as a legitimate institution. Jeffersonís original draft had to be edited because it contained references to the immorality of slavery and this angered the Southern colonies.
9. Lexington and Concord
This was the place where the Revolutionary War broke out in 1775. En route from Lexington, Mass. To Concord, Mass., a group of American militia from Lexington followed the British. While no one intended to fight, but someone accidentally fired a shot and the British fired back. In the end, eight Americans were killed.
10. Bunker Hill
A battle in which Britain had a costly victory and suffered a 40% casualty. This was a sign that the war would not be as easy as England had planned.
A decisive American victory which convinced the French king Louie XVI to help in the American was effort. Louis wanted to embarrass the English and he had been secretly sending supplies to the Americans even before this battle.
The final American victory in which Washington, aided heavily by French troops, defeated General Cornwallis in 1781. After this battle, the Americans won the war for independence.
13. Peace of Paris
A remarkable peace arrangement made with the British in Paris in 1783 by a delegation of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. This was done in secrecy without the aid of the French because the French were no longer as interested in American affairs. This treaty was very favorable to the Americans. It guarantied their independence and also transferred the territory East of the Mississippi (except Spanish Florida) to the Americans. It gave Americans generous North and South boundaries and allowed the U.S. fishing rights in the North Atlantic. Congress agreed to help merchants collect prewar debts and to compensate the loyalists who had lost their land.
14. Loyalists (Torries)
These were Americans who sided with the British during the war and were very widespread in some northern colonies such as New York. They were hated by many Americans during the war. After the U.S. won the war, they had a major dilemma because they didnít really have a place in either British or American society.
After winning the war, Americans had the responsibility of creating a Republican form of government. This is an elective government system which requires a great deal of morality and public virtue. In the 1780's intellectuals such as Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, and Adams dealt with how the new republic should be governed. Many reforms were issued which among other things, tried to destroy the aristocracy, gave more rights to women, and abolished Northern slavery. In general, Americans favored toleration as long as it didnít conflict with traditional Christian values.
16. Land Ordinances of 1785, 1787
The 1785 ordinance divided the western territories into 36 sections to be sold by Congress. According to this ordinance, the land could only be bought with specie (gold & silver). This got little response from the public. The 1787 ordinance was also called the Northwest Ordinance. This was a response to the excess liberty in the western frontier. This provided a bill of rights for the west and outlawed western slavery for the future states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Both these ordinances were due to the fact that the states had been arguing over colonial charters which gave a great deal of western lands to some states such as Massachusetts while giving none to others such as Maryland and New Jersey. The bill of rights in the west was anti-democratic because it set restraints on liberty. This 1787 ordinance favored land speculators and property owners who wouldnít have much chance without it. The ordinance provided a strong government in the west so that the speculators could keep Native Americans and foreigners off their land. It was also anti-democratic because it instituted governors who could veto legislation. Also, the western bill of rights only allowed landowners to vote. A lot of Americans simply ignored the land ordinances.
17. Newburgh Conspiracy
This was when a group of nationalists who claimed that they could save the confederation by allowing Congress to tax tried to stir up the army to rebel against the government in 1783. Fortunately, Washington was able to calm his troops.
18. Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
A treaty where Jay tried to get navigation rights from Spain for the U.S. in the Mississippi but was unable to make Gardoqui compromise and he had to concede to the Spanish. When Congress heard of this diplomatic humiliation, they were outraged and cut negotiations with Spain.
19. Shayís Rebellion
In 1786 the Massachusetts government changed from a relatively democratic government to a much less democratic government because the creditors didnít like the excess of democracy. The new laws forced the people to repay debts and they were unable to declare bankruptcy. A group of rural farm workers in western Massachusetts were outraged and organized a rebellion against the rest of the state under Daniel Shay. This rebellion was soon put down under a militia hired by a group of rich Bostonians. This rebellion was important because it convinced a lot of people to participate in the Philadelphia Convention and make a constitution who wouldnít have otherwise.
20. Annapolis Convention
This was a group of delegates from five states who met in 1786 in Annapolis to create "commercial regulations" on the Chesapeake because certain tariffs impeded trade in this area. They didnít make any resolutions but they did decide to hold a grand convention in Philadelphia in 1787. It is important to not that this Grand Convention was started by the rich.
21. Philadelphia (Constitutional) Convention
In 1787 55 delegates from 12 states (not Rhode Island) met in Philadelphia. These were practical people: lawyers, merchants, and planters. Among the notable attendees were Washington, Madison, Mason, Morris, Wilson, Dickinson, Franklin, and Hamilton. They voted by state but they needed only a majority to pass something (not nine states like the Articles had mandated). The convention was held in great privacy and secrecy to avoid false accounts. This convention was a revolution by a group of people with similar views against the public will. They wanted to dump the Articles and draft a new constitution.
22. Virginia Plan
This plan was introduced by James Madison at the Constitutional Convention and was radically different from the Articles. Unlike the New Jersey plan, this plan was a totally new constitution. It allowed the Federal Government to veto state laws. It said that there should be two houses for national legislature: one directly from the people and the second appointed by the first house. Representation in both houses was proportional to population. It also provided for an executive appointed by Congress. This plan was pushed through very fast and with relative ease.
23. New Jersey Plan
This was an alternative plan suggested by William Paterson. This plan was different from the VA plan in that it called for a mere revision of the Articles, not a totally new constitution. Patersonís plan was listened to but soundly rejected by all states except for New Jersey, New York, and Delaware.
24. Great Compromise
The VA plan presented a problem in that small states wanted to have more representation than the plan allowed for. To solve this problem a committee headed by Benjamin Franklin was formed to create a compromise between the large and small states. The eventual agreement was that Congress would be composed of an upper and lower house. In the upper house, the Senate, there would be equal representation regardless of population. The lower house, the House of Representatives would have representation proportional to population. The House would elect people to the senate.
25. 3/5 Compromise
This compromise rose from a conflict over whether the many Southern slaves should count toward the stateís population and representation. The states compromised that every five slaves equaled three free voters. This was very favorable for the South.
26. Bill of Rights
This document, which was added to the constitution and ratified in 1791 by 3/4 of the states, is the major legacy of the Anti-Federalist argument. It was created to appease the Anti-Federalists in order to ratify the Constitution. It is also the result of the fear that the Federal Government would trample our freedoms. It is a series of 10 amendments which provides for the freedoms of assembly, speech, religion, press, trial by jury, the right to bear arms, and the prohibition of unreasonable search and seizure. It allowed all non-federal powers to be handled by the states and actually allowed for the states to take away our freedoms.
27. The Federalist
This was the publication of a series of essays written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay which supported the Federalist cause. Hamilton said that America should not fear a large Republic. He advocated a government based on the will of the people but removed from their narrowly based demands. This series of essays was instrumental in the ratification of the Constitution.
28. Report of the Public Credit
After extensive research on the American economy, secretary of the treasury Hamilton presented this report to Congress along with two others. The main purpose of the reports was to weaken the state governments thereby strengthening the national government. Hamilton wanted the wealthy and the national government to work together on a plan that would benefit them both and subsequently benefit the entire nation. Hamilton found the national debt to be about 54 million and made two major recommendations for dealing with it: Funding & Assumption. The Funding system would reduce the power of individual states in economic policy. In it, the U.S. promised to repay debts at full face value and he urged the Federal Government to repay them. Hamiltonís plan would convince investors that U.S. bonds were a good risk and invited the wealthy in the country to invest in the nationís future. This also was beneficial economically because once the U.S. could repay their debts, they could borrow even more for useful things that benefit the entire nation. A national debt promotes economic prosperity if used wisely. Madison challenged this and said that the rich shouldnít benefit from the poorís hardship. Rather, he wanted equal treatment but his plan was defeated.
29. Report of Manufactures
Hamiltonís third report in 1791 suggested that the Federal government could stimulate manufacturing with protective tariffs that make it easier to start a business. The plan also called for monetary gifts given to those who started a business. Opponents of this plan engaged it on both moral and political grounds. Madison called it consolidation: giving too much power to the Federal government and almost none to the states. Jefferson said that the Federal government couldnít promote manufacturing and that this plan would cause Americans to leave the rural countryside and crowd the cities. This plan was defeated in the House. It was the only one of Hamiltonís plans to be defeated.
This plan said that the U.S. Government would repay the remaining state debts in full. This meant that the bonds that speculators had bought for very low prices were now worth something because the Federal government had promised to repay the debt. This creates a certain attachment and loyalty between the wealthy and the national government. Many opponents thought of this plan as a scheme by Hamilton to make his friends richer and that the rich shouldnít benefit from the hardship of the poorer people who had originally bought the bonds and had to sell them for very little money. The plan was originally defeated by the house largely because the South opposed it. The South thought it was unfair because many Southern states had already paid off their debts and the plan would only benefit the North. To compensate the South, Hamilton agreed to reward states such as South Carolina and Massachusetts who had already repaid their prewar debts with a monetary bonus. To appease the South, the capital was also moved to Washington, D.C. which showed the equality of North and South symbolically because itís in the middle. As a result of these compensations, the Assumption plan was passed.
31. Bank of U.S.
Hamilton provided for a national bank that would be privately owned but partially funded by the Federal government. The ownership was divided about 50/50 between the Federal government and private shareholders. Only wealthy people could buy these scarce and expensive shares. This bank would own a great deal of U.S. bonds. It would be the main depository for the government and it would issue currency. This money, he said, would be suitable for paying Federal taxes and this guarantied that the money would retain value. Madison and other congressman protested saying that a national bank is not useful and stretches constitutional law.
32. Elastic Clause, Implied Powers
This was the topic of an essay written by Hamilton defending the national bank to the President. He articulated a doctrine of implied powers. He interpreted the constitution in a new way which justified the national bank. He claimed that the constitution allowed for "foregoing powers" which were taxation, regulation of commerce, and making war. Since the clause states "necessary & proper," Hamilton argued that this means that the government can create institutions which are useful and proper in maintaining the "foregoing powers." He justified the national bank because he called it a necessary tool for taxation. This interpretation allowed for a national bank. This interpretation is known as a Loose Construction. Jefferson argued the other side which is the Strict Construction. Jefferson said that since the Constitution doesnít specifically allow for a bank which is a corporation, you canít invent this power and a national bank is unconstitutional. Hamiltonís Loose Construction won and Washington signed the bank into law.
33. Jay Treaty
During the wars between France and England, the U.S. took a formal position of neutrality. England thought that the U.S. was siding with France so they seized U.S. ships in the West Indies without warning. England also refused to abandon some of its troops from the United States and these troops had been inciting Indian rebellions. England was also impressing U.S. seamen which meant that they seized American sailors and forced them to work for the British Navy. This enraged Congress and Washington sent Jay to negotiate peace with England. He negotiated a treaty that was unfavorable to the U.S. England would release the ships but would not repay the lost cargo until pre-Revolutionary War debts were paid off. England also refused to stop impressment and seizure and wouldnít pay for the slaves that it had freed during the Revolution. Also, it still did not allow for the U.S. to trade with England. Jayís treaty did however make the English pull out their remaining troops and stop inciting the Indians. It also allowed small U.S. vessels to trade in the West Indies. Jayís "sellout" caused great controversy and led to the division between the Federalists and Republicans becoming irreparable. Jayís treaty so enraged the South that the Southern delegates almost impeached Washington because they felt that he had no regard for their concerns. Jayís treaty did have one very positive consequence. Due to these negotiations, the Spanish falsely suspected an American alliance with the British against Spain and sought to stop this by offering a very favorable treaty to the U.S.
34. Pinkney Treaty
This treaty, also called the San Lorenzo Treaty, was made due to an error by the Spanish. Spain erroneously thought that the U.S. was teaming with England to capture Spanish lands in the South West. Spain tried to prevent this by offering a lot in a treaty to the U.S. A surprised Pinkney signed the treaty in which the U.S. got a secure southern boundary from Spain. Spain also agreed to stay out of U.S. Indian affairs.
35. Proclamation of Neutrality
Washington issued this in 1778, assuring both sides of the conflict that the U.S. would remain neutral. This put an end to the Genêt crisis. This was done also because America didnít want to get drawn into a war with England.
36. Citizen Genêt Affair
At the outset of the French and English war, the French minister to the U.S., began the first major diplomatic crisis in the U.S. When Genêt came to the U.S. and saw the excitement over the French Revolution, he tried to draw support for France and he authorized privately owned American vessels to capture English ships in the name of France. This clearly violated the Proclamation of Neutrality but Genêtís plan didnít come into existence. Many people in congress also feared that Genêt was trying to start a revolution in the U.S. Ironically, Genêt requested U.S. amnesty in the end because he heard that the Jacobins intended to cut off his head if he returned so he remained in the U.S. and married into a very wealthy family.
37. Thomas Paine
Paine pushed the colonists toward thinking of independence with his famous essay "Common Sense." In it, he stripped the monarchy of historical and religious justification. This essay was a powerful democratic manifesto. Paine convinced the common people to break with England.
38. Samuel Adams
Adams kept the cause of American liberty alive with extensive publicity. He was a genuine revolutionary obsessed with preserving public virtue. He developed a structure for political cooperation outside of the royal government. The more Parliament tried to rule the colonies, the more people listened to Adams.
39. Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry exploded in Virginiaís House of Burgesses after hearing about the Stamp Act. Henry provided five resolutions protesting the Stamp Act and the newspapers falsely represented his speech. The papers claimed that Henry had been even more radical than he had been and also that the House of Burgesses accepted his proposals, which it indeed did not.
I. FOREIGN POLICY
1. XYZ Affair
President John Adams did not wish to escalate the quasi-war with France so he dispatched a special commission in 1797 to negotiate with France. This famous team included Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry. Their mission was to receive payment for the U.S. ships that had been seized by France as well as formal release from the treaties of 1778. They were to offer to France the same commercial privileges that England had gotten in Jayís Treaty. The commission was not allowed to deal with Talleyrand (the French minister of foreign relations) directly unless they paid $250,000 to France and lent them one million dollars. The American diplomats were insulted and they went home. This diplomatic humiliation led to a domestic political explosion. Adams presented the correspondence of the commission to Congress in which Talleyrandís lackeys were named X, Y, and Z. The Federalists cried for war and said that French supporters were traitors. This shattered relations between the two parties. The Federalists were determined to use the XYZ affair to crush the Republicans and make a one-party system.
When the French took Jayís treaty as a symbol of America being on Englandís side, foreign relations between France and the U.S. deteriorated. Pierre Adet, a French minister visiting Philadelphia, tried to help the Republicans in the 1796 election. His meddling in domestic politics embarrassed Jefferson and offended the American people. French privateers began seizing U.S. ships and since war was never declared, it was called a quasi-war with France. Hamilton wanted to go to war with France to crush domestic political dissent. This Machiavellian idea that foreign policy affects domestic politics even more then foreign politics is called the "primacy of domestic politics."
3. Convention of Mortefontaine
In 1799, Adams got a report from the French that the XYZ affair had been a mistake and although the high-Federalists didnít believe it, Adams wanted peace so he sent Ellsworth, Davie and Murray to France. They came to France and found Napoleon in charge. At the Convention of Mortefontaine, the U.S. delegates didnít get repayment for the seized vessels but they did get the nullification of the 1787 treaties. In his finest hour, Adams broke with the high-Federalists and avoided war. He also set up an atmosphere of mutual trust that later led to the Louisiana Purchase.
4. Louisiana Purchase
President Thomas Jefferson was confident that he could get Louisiana and Florida from the Spanish via either negotiations or the threat of American occupation. He soon learned that the Spanish had sold it to France and many Americans believed that Napoleon was reaching for a North American Empire. Congress was in a panic and urged Jefferson to declare war but Jefferson told James Monroe and Robert Livingston to attempt to buy New Orleans (which had recently been sealed off) from France. Napoleon had already given up on a North American empire because many of his troops had died of disease while attempting to conquer it. Talleyrand sold the land to the surprised American for only 15 million dollars. The territory doubled the size of the U.S. Since the new territory tan contrary to the Constitution, Jefferson wanted to amend it but never did. He had adopted the Hamiltonian idea to purchase the territory and in justifying it he said, "I am sure that the genius of the American people will repair any damage that I have done with this act." As a result of this and his decision to tax the French and Spanish in the territory without their consent, many Republicans criticized the President for betraying their ideals. Part of Jeffersonís motive in buying the territory is that while the 3rd-rate Spanish Empire ruled the territory, Jefferson believed that the Americans would gradually move in and take over when we expanded so much that there was no more land available. However, the French would be a permanent barrier to American expansion into the territory and the U.S. would have to ally themselves with the British in order to obtain it. Jefferson did not want this so he had to stop Napoleon from making a North-American empire. Unlike the Federalists, the Republicans favored expansion because the more land that the U.S. owns the more agriculture that can take place.
5. Impressment, Orders in Council, Berlin and Milan Decrees
During Jeffersonís second term, France and England fought vigorously for land and sea supremacy. U.S. ships benefited during the early part of the war as "neutral carriers." England didnít allow direct trade between France and its colonies so U.S. ships made "broken voyages" in which they sailed to French ports in the Caribbean, sailed back to the U.S. with their cargo and then sailed to France to trade their goods. In 1806 England passed the "Orders in Council" which forbade neutral commerce with the continent. Napoleon made similar statements in the Berlin and Milan Decrees and the U.S. was caught in the middle of the two warring powers. French and English forces also refused to cease the impressment of sailors on U.S. ships.
6. Embargo of 1807
Jefferson used a policy of "peaceful coercion" to deal with Franceís and Englandís non-recognition of U.S. neutrality. In this policy, unless the England and France complied, the U.S. would keep their ships at home thereby preventing their seizure and at the same time depriving Europe of American goods, especially foodstuffs. This became law in the Embargo Act of 1807 but a lot of Americans, particularly Northerners, were opposed to it. Upstate New York refused to comply with the Act and Jefferson sent troops to force them to comply. For this to work, he had to implement a type of police state. The Embargo Act corresponds to Jeffersonís ideology that the U.S. is a self-sufficient republic and that Europe needs our food more than we need our money and that keeping our ships was more important than profit. This is also against Jeffersonian beliefs because it centralizes the government and gives a great deal of power to the federal government. It is very similar to English policy. Unfortunately, Jefferson was wrong and the Act didnít affect Europe and there was a lot of resistance. By 1809, "peaceful coercion" had failed Congress repealed the Embargo Act. Jefferson retired and was replaced by James Madison.
7. Nonintercourse Act
When he assumed the presidency, Madison was left with the same problem of France and England not respecting U.S. neutrality. He passed the Non-Intercourse Act which resumed all U.S. trade except with France and England until they complied. David Erkine, the English minister to the U.S., told Madison that England had modified its positions on some important commercial issues. The president was encouraged and announced that trade with England could resume. Erkine had never conferred with his superiors and the English foreign secretary, George Canning rejected the agreement. The English navy seized U.S. ships that had already been sent to England. This embarrassed and angered President Madison.
8. Maconís Bill No. 2
Canningís betrayal led Madison into a French trap. A poorly drafted Maconís Bill No. 2, which was sponsored by Macon from North Carolina, opened trade with France and England and stated that if either side repealed its restrictions on U.S. shipping, the U.S. would cut off trade with the other side. Napoleon announced that he would repeal his restriction and Madison impulsively told the English that he would cut off trade unless they complied. Napoleon never intended to keep his word but Madison didnít want further embarrassment so he pretended that Napoleon was complying. The English couldnít understand why Madison was tolerating Napoleons deception.
9. War Hawks
In 1811 there was a lot of Anti-English sentiment in the U.S. and a group of militant republicans repudiated "peaceful coercion" and wanted war with England. Madison succumbed to their demands and sent a war declaration to Congress in 1812. The timing of this declaration was very strange since tensions were relaxing and England was ready to repeal the Orders in Council. Some wanted war to conquer Canada and some wanted it for national pride. The War Hawks believed falsely that they could easily sweep Canada from the British for its fertile lands and to stop the English from inciting Indian rebellions. The weak decentralized government from Jeffersonís time was not prepared and didnít mobilize the needed resources for a large-scale and expensive war with England. The War of 1812 with England was an awful war in which Madison didnít get what he wanted: Canada. At the outset, the U.S. had heavy losses but gradually was able to even the score with the British. The British set fire to Washington, D.C. in response to the American destruction of York, Ontario. The war did however instill a sense of American pride as a result of such victories as the defense of Ft. McHenry in Baltimore. It was called the "Second War of Independence" by some and many Americans felt that we no longer had to fear from Europe.
10. Treaty of Ghent
In 1814 the U.S. sent delegates to Ghent in Belgium to negotiate with the English. At first, the English made impossible demands such as major territorial concessions, the right to navigation in the Mississippi River, and a large Indian buffer state in the North West territory. England eventually lowered their demands and neither side surrendered any territory. There was no talk of impressment, and peace was the only thing that was gotten from the Treaty of Ghent. Congress decided that a stalemate was better than a conflict so they ratified the Treaty.
11. Rush-Bagot Treaty
This was an agreement for Great Lakes disarmament after the War of 1812 made between British Minister Charles Bagot and Secretary of State Richard Rush. The English feared that this unusual diplomatic agreement might not bind later American administrations but it was submitted to the Senate and got its approval in 1818. This agreement had been sought by the U.S. since 1783.
12. Adams-Onis Treaty (Transcontinental Treaty)
After the War of 1812, there was a lot of U.S. expansion into the Spanish territories of the North West and Florida. After Andrew Jackson attacked the Indians in Florida, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams told the Spanish that further conflict could be avoided only if East Florida was ceded to the U.S. In 1819, Spain fell to U.S. pressure and signed the Adams-Onis Treaty which gave Florida to the U.S. in return for U.S. assumption of $5 million in claims of U.S. citizens against Spain. Florida became a refuge for runaway slaves. Spain gave in because they saw what Jackson had done to the English and Indians in Florida and they were afraid that weíd unleash Jackson on them. In other words, our main foreign policy was to protect slavery because England was undermining it in Florida.
13. Monroe Doctrine
This doctrine, which was mostly written by John-Quincy Adams in 1823, declared U.S. opposition to European colonization in the Americas. It also stated that the U.S. wouldnít meddle in European affairs. It called for North America being composed of two separate independent republics. Although it made little impression on Europe, the Monroe Doctrine symbolized the huge amount of independence and self confidence in the American attitude toward the Old World. The Doctrine was instated because the U.S. was fearful of one of the European powers colonizing so close to our borders. It was obeyed by Europe because England backed it with their navy (they wanted open trade with Latin America), and also because Europe was too involved in its own affairs to colonize. The Doctrine does not state that the U.S. wonít colonize in North America. It has been recognized by the UN today as international law. It makes assumptions that Europe is authoritarian, backward, sleazy, corrupt, and dishonest. The U.S. however, is more rational and honest. This is similar to todayís foreign policy.
14. Manifest Destiny
In the mid 1840'a, some Americans said that it was the "manifest destiny" of the U.S. to expand and capture Canada and Mexico. President Tyler initiated this idea by attempting to annex Texas. There are three main ideas of manifest destiny. The first is a Puritan idea that God is on the side of American expansion. The second is "free development," the idea that American expansion is the expansion of freedom. The third is that our population increase requires expansion to prevent social classes for forming.
15. Causes of Texas War of Independence
When Mexico got independence from Spain in 1821, they encouraged Americans to settle in Texas. American settlement there led to a lot of tension over slavery, which was prohibited by the Mexicans, and the role of the Catholic Church. When the Protestant American settlers refused to concert to Catholicism, Mexico prohibited further U.S. settlement. The Texans had little representation in the Mexican government so they began a revolt in 1835 for "liberty." Texas was inspired by such brave battles as the Alamo where 187 Texans defended the Alamo against the large Mexican forces for a long while. Texas won and became an independent republic.
16. Annexation of Texas, Reoccupation of Texas, Reannexation of Oregon
President Tyler broke with the Whigs and used the annexation of Texas to run on his own. The annexation was very popular with the South and John Calhoun because they wanted Texas to unite the South and fight abolitionists. Tyler used propaganda that England was engaging in secret negotiations with Texas to abolish slavery in Texas in exchange for independence. Americans falsely believed that although England knew that abolition was a stupid economic policy, they wanted to abolish slavery in the U.S. to hurt the American economy. This false belief is part of an American fear that England wants to snub out freedom and liberty in the U.S. It appealed to Northern nationalism. Congress didnít pass the treaty because of opposition by Northern Whigs. The annexation of Texas was a major issue in the 1844 election. Martin Van Buren, a Democrat, was against the annexation because he didnít want war with Mexico so he made a deal with Henry Clay, a Whig, to keep the issue out of the election. This angered Southern Democrats and they nominated James K. Polk, a Jackson protégéé, for the presidency. Clay waffled on the issue because it was so popular and this cost him Northern Whig support. Polk won narrowly and the annexation was approved just before he took office. Slavery played a big role in the annexation of Texas. The North feared it because they didnít want Texas which would become a slave state to upset the balance of national power. Polk got Northerners to agree with annexation by promising to bring in Oregon, a free-state.
17. 54 40 or Fight
Polk used the slogan "54 40 or Fight" to refer to his will to get Oregon from the British, which had previously had a joint-occupation agreement with the U.S. Polk went too far and England wouldnít agree and Polk was forced to get only half of Oregon. England got temporary navigation rights on the Columbus River as well as Vancouver Island. The U.S. came very close to war with England over this issue. The agreement gave the U.S. itís first deep water port. This led to the Northern belief that Polk was part of a Southern conspiracy to make the U.S. a slave-union because Polk fought for Texas but not for Oregon.
18. Slidell Mission to Mexico
In 1845, Mexico recognized Texas independence but not their claim to the territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande River. When the U.S. annexed Texas as well as the disputed territory, Mexico prepared for war and Polk dispatched troops to Louisiana. He also sent John Slidell as an emissary to Mexico City to try to resolve the dispute. Mexico ignored him because normal diplomatic relations had ceased between the two countries and Polk declared war on Mexico.
19. Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo
Nicholas P. Trist was a diplomat who went along with the U.S. army in the Mexican War to negotiate a treaty. At the end of the war, Mexico wasnít being decisive in negotiations so Polk called Trist back to Washington but Trist refused. In 1848, Trist drew up the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo which gave the U.S. New Mexico and Texas for $15 million, and a Rio Grande border. Polk censured Trist but the treaty was ratified. This treaty enlarged the U.S. by 20% and gave the U.S. the future states of California, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming. It also led to the Gadsden purchase of south Arizona and New Mexico in 1853.
20. Mexican Cession
The U.S. didnít get all of Mexico for two reasons. The first reason was racial discrimination. The U.S. didnít want to mix with the Mexicans yet they also didnít want to colonize like England. The second reason is that all the U.S. really wanted were the ports of San Diego and San Francisco in order to trade directly with the Orient and to dominate the Pacific. The Mexican War led to political dissension because the Whigs said that the U.S. had no right to the disputed territory. The North said that expansion was merely a Southern plot to expand slavery. The war also revealed the limits of U.S. expansion: the U.S. was unwilling to fight big powers such as England to get Canada. The Wilmont Proviso banned slavery in all territories conquered from Mexico.
21. Webster-Ashburton Treaty
The big dispute over the boundary between Maine and the English province of N. Brunswick in Canada erupted into fighting in 1839. In 1842, Secretary of State Daniel Webster made the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with England. The Treaty gave over half of the disputed territory to the U.S. and established a definite Northeast U.S. boundary.
22. Gadsden Purchase
Those interested in a Southern route for a transcontinental railroad pressed for even more territory along the border of the Mexican session. This led in 1853 to the Gadsden Purchase in which the U.S. purchased Southern Arizona and New Mexico.
1. Second U.S. Bank
After the War of 1812, the Republicans were so dominant that the Whigs had no chance of winning an election and Republicans no longer had to distinguish themselves so they adopted a lot of Federalist policies such as the U.S. Bank. Congress established the Second U.S. Bank with a 20-year charter, $35 million and the right to make branches. It was similar to the first Bank in that it was both publicly and privately owned. The Bank helped the government as a depository for its funds, an outlet for marketing securities, and a source of redeemable bank notes. A lot of Congressman said that the Bank is a necessary and proper means for promoting financial stability and collecting taxes.
2. Tariff of 1816
This tariff imposed a lot of duties on U.S. imports which averaged about 25%. It was passed because English goods were hurting the U.S. economy. There was a lot of support for it because manufacturing was a patriotic concern and it helped Northeast manufacturers against their rival English manufacturers. The South resented the tariff because they sold a lot of cotton to England. The West benefits from the tariff because it helps build roads and rails.
3. Panic of 1819
This panic came as a result of hyper inflation, easy credit, and a huge amount of land speculation. The U.S. Bank called in all loans and demanded their redemption in specie. This led to an economic disaster: prices fell, businesses failed, and credited land was foreclosed. In 1821 Congress responded weakly with a relief act which eased the terms for paying debts. President James Monroe had no plan because he felt no need for leadership and the voters agreed.
4. American System
This neo-Federalist idea was started by Congress in 1816. The idea was started by Henry Clay of Kentucky who said that the government can contribute to economic growth. The Tariff of 1816 was the 1st step in developing this system which provided a "home market" for Americans and protected the U.S. economy from foreign influence. President Monroe was not convinced about the value of the American System.
5. Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which is a simple machine that separates the cotton seeds from the cotton. This invention had a huge effect on the Southern economy. The Southern economy switched from being a rice and tobacco-based economy to being a cotton-based economy.
6. Internal Improvements
In the early 1820's, internal improvements were not such a big issue in Congress because of sectional disagreements over who would benefit from specific projects. Madison and Monroe wanted internal improvements but needed an Amendment to do so.
7. National Road
This was the only major transportation project undertaken by Congress at this time. There was a lot of disagreement and debate in Congress over wether Congress had the Constitutional right to repair and administer the National road. Monroe said that it was beyond the power of Congress. Consequently, public aid for building roads and canals came mostly from state and local governments.
8. Erie Canal and the Greatness of NYC
The Erie Canal project is credited mainly to New Yorkís vigorous and farsighted governor, De Witt Clinton. Clinton got the New York legislature to underwrite the project by issuing bonds. The Erie Canal opened in 1825 amid much public celebration. The 364 mile long canal was the most spectacular engineering achievement of the U.S. at the time. It lowered the cost of Western products in the East and vice versa. It also helped make New York City the commercial capital of the U.S.
9. Tariff of Abominations
In the 1820's, the South became increasingly fearful about the decreasing rights of the states. South Carolina, led by Vice President John Calhoun, was very much opposed to the protective tariff, which they called the Tariff of Abominations. This was the highest protective tariff in American history. President Andrew Jackson and John Calhoun had a continuous feud because unlike Calhoun, Jackson was opposed to nullification. In 1832, Congress passed a new lower tariff and the South Carolina convention voted to nullify the tariffs. Jackson prepared for military action because he called the nullification treason. In 1833, Jackson supported Henry Clayís lower tariff and it was passed. South Carolina feared the Jackson military so they backed down. This nullification philosophy had implied the rights of secession. Jackson was pro-slavery but against state sovereignty. Jackson passed the Gag Rule which banned any mention of slavery in Congress. This was a sectional difference between the North and the South.
10. Specie Circular
In 1836, President Jackson surrendered to Congressional pressure and gave a lot of federal funds to state banks and gave them control. This led to hyper inflation so Jackson issued the specie circular which said that government obligations could only be paid in specie. The specie circular curbed the inflation but also precipitated the Panic of 1837.
11. Independent Treasury Bill
After his election, President Martin Van Buren devised a new system of public finance which wouldnít lead to further panics. Van Buren proposed an independent subtreasury, a depository for the government with no commercial ties. This system minimizes inflation but also keeps back the growth of the country because the banks are unable to issue a lot of money and there isnít enough money for growth.
1. Alien and Sedition Acts
In 1798, Federalists in Congress passed a group of bills known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. These acts allowed federal courts and the President the power to silence the Republicans. It was the first major civil liberty crisis. There were three separate Alien Acts. The Alien Enemies Law gave the President a lot of wartime powers including the ability to deport suspicious foreign citizens. The Alien Law said that the President can expel foreigners with an executive decree for a 2-year limit. This led to the fleeing of many French people in the U.S. The flagrantly political Naturalization Law established a 14-year probation wait for U.S. citizenship. The Alien Acts were passed because the Federalists realized that the many Irish immigrants were Republicans. The Sedition Law struck at the heart of free political exchange by saying that criticism of the U.S. government is political libel. Republicans argued that this was against the First Amendment and that this matter should be left to the States. Seventeen people were indicted for Sedition. This demonstrated that the federal courts had become political tools. The Alien and Sedition Acts was another attempt by Hamilton to crush the Republicans.
2. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
In 1798 many Republicans were convinced that the Federalists wanted a police state and Jefferson believed that the last hope for American freedom lay in the states. Jefferson and Madison drafted separate protests called the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. They defended the state right to determine the constitutionality of federal law. In the Kentucky Resolution Jefferson was very radical and justified state nullification of federal law. In this resolution, Jefferson expressed his belief that the U.S. would one day break up. It represented the attempt to decrease federal power. Madison was more moderate in his Virginia Resolution. He urged the states to defend the rights of the American people.
3. Chase Impeachment
When President Jefferson saw a speech of the Justice Samuel Chase, a Federalist Supreme-Court judge, he contended that his words were almost treasonous and he was indicted by Congress. Some Congressman said that this was purely political and that Chase hadnít committed a crime. Chasesí trial before the Senate was one of the most dramatic events in U.S. history. Chasesí lawyers made a good case while prosecutor John Randolph made a bad one and Chase was acquitted. He refrained from further attacks on Republican policy. Jefferson learned that American politicians were not willing to tamper with the Constitution to impeach specific judges.
4. Burr Conspiracy
Vice President Aaron Burr caused a lot of problems for President Jefferson so he played a very small role in shaping policy and this caused him a lot of frustration. In 1804, Burr wanted to run for New York governor but Hamilton warned the Federalists that he was very dangerous. Burr was very angry at Hamilton so he challenged Hamilton to a duel and shot and killed him. Burr was indicted for murder in New York and New Jersey. Burr planned to capture Mexico and secede the West from the union. He appointed James Wilkinson, a U.S. army commander, as general for this conspiracy. In 1806, Burr tried to implement his plan but Wilkinson betrayed Burr and told Jefferson of his plan. Burr tried to escape to Spanish Florida but was arrested in 1807 and stood trial for treason. Chief Justice John Marshall didnít want to do any favors for Jefferson so he behaved in a very partisan manner and declared Burr not-guilty even though he undoubtedly was guilty. Burr escaped to Europe and the public was outraged. Jefferson proposed an Amendment to elect federal judges but it failed. Marshall helped protect American civil rights and refused to hear circumstantial evidence in the case. He stopped future Presidents from using conspiracy charges to silence legitimate political opposition.
5. Hartford Convention
In 1814, a group of high-ranking Northeast politicians, mostly moderate Federalists met to discuss relations between them and the rest of the U.S. in the Hartford Convention. They were angered and hurt by the embargo and the War of 1812. Although they didnít advocate secession, they recommended a series of Amendments to the Constitution. They wanted representation in the House of Representatives to be based on white males alone, not blacks as well according to the 3/5 Rule. They also insisted on a 2/3 majority for Congress to declare war, pass commercial regulations, or add new states. They wanted to stop the Virginia dynasty in the Presidency by limiting the President to one term. They hoped that these resolutions would protect them from Northern tyranny and they sent the resolutions to Washington, D.C. Everyone was excited by the recent peace after the War of 1812 and the Hartford Convention was accused of disloyalty and attempting to destroy the union. This accelerated the end of the Federalists.
6. Characteristics of Jacksonian Democracy
President Andrew Jacksonís election in 1828 symbolized the triumph of Democracy. By 1830, every U.S. state had universal male suffrage. This was not the intention of the founding fathers. Electors were selected by popular vote, not state legislatures. Jackson was a self-made man and he made himself a large fortune. He came from rude circumstances to being a landowner with money and slaves. He was a common man: illiterate and an alcoholic. Jacksonian Democracy represented the failure by the Constitution to prevent the rise of democracy.
7. Spoils System
When Jackson became President, he openly endorsed the rotation of officeholders or what his critics called the spoils system. Although his removal of federal officeholders and replacement with his supporters did not depart radically from his predecessors, he was the first president to defend this as legitimate democratic doctrine.
8. Franchise Extension
By 1830, every state except for one had universal white male suffrage. Although this was not the intention of the founding fathers, this franchise extension represented the Jacksonian Democracy of the time.
9. Caucus vs. Nominating Convention
By the late 1820's, political parties had begun to select presidential candidates in a new way: the nominating convention. This began with the Anti-Masonic party selecting candidates with a large political convention. The old and outmoded caucus system nominated the presidential candidate with a very small and select group of part leaders. The nominating convention was much more democratic.
10. Indian Removal
President Jackson favored the removal of eastern Indians to lands beyond the Mississippi River. Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi voted for Jackson because they wanted quick Indian removal. The Cherokees were a problem to remove because they were civilized and had largely adapted to American culture. Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama asserted state authority over the Indian tribes and this was against the Constitution. Jackson supported them and called for Cherokee removal. In 1830, Jackson sent a removal bill to Congress which was controversial because it was against the Constitution. The bill was passed because of Western and Southern support and in 1833 all Southeast tribes were removed except for the Cherokee. In 1838, federal troops rounded up the Cherokee and marched them to Oklahoma on what was later called the Trail of Tears because 4,000 out of 13,000 marchers died. Indian removal exposed the prejudice and greed of Jacksonian Democracy.
The coalition that had censured Jackson became the nucleus for a new party: the Whigs. Leadership for the party came from National republicans under Henry Clay and Northeast x-Federalists under Daniel Webster. They were also supported by Southern proponents of state rights. The Whigs absorbed the Anti-Masonic party who was against Jacksonianism because it tolerated diverse lifestyles. Unlike the Federalists and the Republicans, the Whigs and Democrats were not seen as temporary parties and they competed on fairly equal terms. Whig supporters were mostly Protestant merchants, industrialists, and others who had successfully adapted to the market economy. The Whigs favored a market economy and active government participation in the economy but wanted to restrain individualism and disorder using moral values. They favored a loose construction of the Constitution. The Whigís basic principle was orderly progress under the guidance of an enlightened elite. A market economy benefits everyone they said.
12. Maysville Rd. Veto
Early in his administration Jackson appeared to agree with the Southern slave-holding position on state versus federal authority. In 1830, Jackson vetoed the Maysville Road, a major internal improvement bill. He invoked a strict Constitutional construction to deny federal funds for building the Kentucky road.
13. Bank Re-Charter
Since they supported his opposition, Jackson came into office against the U.S. Bank. This made Bank-President Nicholas Biddle panic and call for a bank a re-charter in 1832 instead of 1836 like the original plan was in order to force Jackson into a corner. Jackson vetoed the bill, saying that a U.S. Bank is unconstitutional and violates democracy. Jackson brought the issue to the people and therefore won his election against Henry Clay in 1832. Biddle had a good record before his confrontation with Jackson. Jacksonís attack on the Bank was one of his most important and controversial uses of executive power.
14. Pet Banks
Jackson wanted to attack the U.S. Bank because he felt that they were attacking him and according to Jackson, his opponents werenít just wrong, they were evil and had to be destroyed. Jackson tried to remove federal deposits from the Bank and this led to a lot of resistance in his cabinet. Jackson appointed Roger B. Taney as Secretary of the Treasury and Taney immediately started removing the deposits. In 1833, 23 state banks became the new federal depositories. They were called pet banks and they nullified Jacksonís attempt to switch to a hard money economy. The pet banks extended credit recklessly and a large amount of paper money began to be circulated. Biddle tried once again to get support for his re-charter by causing economic distress but he failed. At this time, a lot of opposition to Jackson began in Congress where some said that he had gone too far.
15. Peggy Eaton Affair
Peggy Eaton, the wife of the Secretary of War John Eaton was not accepted by the wives of other cabinet members because of questions about her moral background. Jackson championed her because this reminded her of the slanders against his late wife, Rachel. As a result of the Peggy Eaton Affair Jackson fired his entire cabinet except for Martin Van Buren, who supported her. The defense of Peggy Eaton was very popular with the American people.
16. Nullification Crisis
In the 1820's, the South became increasingly fearful about the decreasing rights of the states. South Carolina, led by Vice President John Calhoun, was very much opposed to the protective tariff, which they called the Tariff of Abominations. This was the highest protective tariff in American history. President Andrew Jackson and John Calhoun had a continuous feud because unlike Calhoun, Jackson was opposed to nullification. In 1832, Congress passed a new lower tariff and the South Carolina convention voted to nullify the tariffs. Jackson prepared for military action because he called the nullification treason. In 1833, Jackson supported Henry Clayís lower tariff and it was passed. South Carolina feared the Jackson military so they backed down. This nullification philosophy had implied the rights of secession. Jackson was pro-slavery but against state sovereignty. Jackson passed the Gag Rule which banned any mention of slavery in Congress. Slavery is also taboo in the Constitution. This Nullification Crisis was a sectional difference between the North and the South.
17. Missouri Compromise
In 1820, the Missouri Compromise kept the balance of power in the Senate by admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. This agreement made a line for the Louisiana Purchase where North of the line would be free states and South of it would be slave states. It settled the argument over slavery in the territories temporarily and was an overtone for a lot of sectional strife over the condition of slavery in future states.
18. Compromise of 1850
After the U.S. acquired territories from Mexico, there was a large sectional conflict over the status of slavery in those territories. Since President Zachary Taylor would not appease the South over this issue, Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky offered a series of resolutions to restore harmony. Taylor was against the compromise and a lot of Congressman didnít want to vote for the omnibus package bill. Taylor died and was replaced by Millard Fillmore who favored the compromise and the bill was separated. The Compromise of 1850 had four separate parts. First of all, California would become a free-state and New Mexico would have no prohibition against slavery. New Mexico would get the region that it was disputing with Texas and the Texas debt would be assumed by the federal government. In Washington, D.C., slave auctions were prohibited and abolitionism was permitted. Lastly, a more effective fugitive-slave law was introduced. The Compromise of 1850 won with the support of Northern Democrats, Southern Whigs, and both parties on the borders. It served for a short time as a basis of sectional peace. This compromise was a disturbing disintegration of the two party system. New sectional alliances were made.
19. Kansas-Nebraska Act
In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed a bill to organize the territory west of Missouri and Iowa. Although the Missouri Compromise called for this territory to be free Douglas wanted unity so he left the status of slavery up to popular sovereignty. He wanted to organize the Kansas-Nebraska territory quickly because he was a supporter of expansion and wanted to revive Manifest Destiny. Douglas intended to unite the Democratic Party with this but it only led to splitting it even further. Douglas wanted to be President someday and thought that this Act would appeal to the South because of popular sovereignty and to the North because once the territory is organized it allowed for a railroad there which would promote economic prosperity and add more farmland to the U.S. After the bill passed narrowly, a group of "independent Democrats" denounced the bill because it allowed slavery where it had been prohibited previously. The Kansas-Nebraska had a negative effect on sectional harmony because it repudiated a compromise that much of the North held to be sacred. It also destroyed the 2nd party system and doomed efforts by Pierce for an expansionist foreign policy.
20. Bleeding Kansas
A tragic result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was the fighting that erupted in Bleeding Kansas. In the first territorial elections in Kansas, Missouri residents illegally crossed the border and voted in Kansas which led to the victory of the slave-state forces even though the free-state forces were in the majority. Free Soil residents in Kansas took up arms against the slave-state forces in a rival territorial government. The Pierce administration refused to recognize them but the Republicans defended them. A small civil war broke out in Lawrence, the capital of the rival free-state. There was a lot of damage done to property and guerilla warfare. The Republicans used Bleeding Kansas along with the attack on Sumner to portray an image of the evil and aggressive slave power.
21. Know Nothing Party
In 1849 a secret fraternal organization known as the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner was founded in New York as one of the political nativist parties who called themselves "American" parties and were against Catholic immigration. This order became the Know-Nothing Party and grew very quickly. The Know-Nothings were anti-immigration and anti-expansion. They grew and became a large political force by 1855 called the American Party. Their supporters were Whigs, and x-Democrats. Northern Know-Nothings opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. After their quick rise, the Know-Nothings mysteriously collapsed and disappeared. Some say that their leadership was anti-professional and inexperienced which led to their downfall. A lot of different kinds of people supported them which led to disunity. The Know-Nothing Party destroyed what was left of the Whig Party.
22. Douglas Freeport Doctrine
The Freeport Doctrine was Douglasí defense against Abraham Lincoln in the 1858 Illinois Senate race. When Lincoln challenged popular sovereignty, Douglas defended it by saying that the citizens could still vote for the status of slavery but the legislature of the state doesnít have to make a code to enforce it. What he means is that it doesnít matter if slavery is legal if the state legislature doesnít back it up because there is no defense or enforcement of slavery in the state. Douglas was right but he lost a lot of support because people said that he didnít have a strong position on slavery.
23. John Brown and Harperís Ferry
John Brownís raid of Harperís Ferry in Virginia was among a chain of events in 1859 and 1860 that led to a "crisis of fear" in the South. John Brown was an anti-slavery radical who raided the armory in Harperís Ferry in order to arm the slaves for a rebellion. A lot of slaves didnít support him and Brown and his 18 men were forced to take refuge in a fire house. U.S. marines under Colonel Robert E. Lee fought with the rebels and eventually stormed the firehouse. Brown lost 10 men and Lee lost seven. Brown and his remaining followers were tried for treason against Virginia and an investigation found that some Northern abolitionists approved of Brownís plan. This led to a Southern uproar. There was a lot of Northern sympathy on the day of Brownís hanging and he became a martyr and a saint in the North. The South was furious over this and it led to their belief that all Northerners were abolitionists. The South panicked and began mobilization.
Reform & Culture
This was a literary and philosophical movement that began in the U.S. between 1820 and 1850. Transcendentalism inspired the most memorable experiments in thinking and living on a higher plane of that age. Transcendentalists believed that the individual can transcend material reality and attain a higher form of reason. They were the American version of Romanticism and Ralph Waldo Emerson was their prophet.
This was Millennial movement which was very enthusiastic in the 19th Century. Millenialism was the basis for the Mormon beliefs.
The Mormons were a group of religious pioneers who followed the Oregon Trail and established a thriving community near Great Salt Lake. They were members of the largest religious domination that originated in the U.S.: the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Their founder, Joseph Smith, said that they were the new Israel. Internal dissension occurred over Smithís practices such as polygamy and the founder was killed. His successor, Brigham Young, moved the Mormons to Utah which he called the "promised land." The Mormon community in Utah was a model of discipline and cooperation. It was eventually annexed to the U.S. in 1848. The Mormons moved to escape religious persecution. They were perfectionists. They wanted a perfect society. Unlike many other religious movements at the time, the Mormons prospered because they called Utah the promised land and said that prophecy had occurred in America. This meant that America is the center of history and this appealed to a great deal of people.
4. Dorothea Dix
This remarkable woman was a practical reformer between 1838 and the Civil War. She publicized the inhumane treatment in prisons, almshouses, and asylums. She lobbied for corrective action. In her statements, she says that she implies that women think of themselves as Godlike and that they are more sensitive to the plight of these outcasts. She assumes that these bad conditions are because of the ignorance of the people who make them. This is American perfectionism. There are no bad people or bad institutions she says. This is a classic Americanism: a rejection of Protestantism.
5. Horace Mann and Education
Between 1820 and 1850, there was a large expansion of free public schools which people regarded as an important moral indoctrination. Schools became an expansion of and sometimes even a substitute for the home. Public schools became a way of countering the gap between rich and poor. Horace Mann was a Massachusetts lawyer and legislator who established the State Board of Education. Mann said that children could be molded and he discouraged corporal punishment. He called the public schools a means of social discipline and the upper and middle classes agreed. In these Protestant public schools, children are taught the social skills of self-control, hard work, responsibility, cooperation, and competition. Schools give children practical knowledge with which to solve problems.
6. Prison Reform, Auburn System
In the 1820's and 1830's, state-supported prisons, insane asylums, and poor houses emerged. These reflected the reformers who wanted to establish special institutions for those incapable of self-discipline. They were humanitarian institutions under the belief that a person could reform in a controlled environment. Institutions such as these in Auburn, New York, and Philadelphia were a substitute for a family and the custodians were supposed to be like parents. They were not co-ed and had a strict daily routine which led to them not achieving the goals of their founders. Public support was inadequate and this led to crowding and the use of brutality to keep order. As Dorothea Dix explained, these institutions werenít adequate to reform most people.
7. Second Great Awakening, Finney
Charles G. Finney was a New York evangelist who preached that everyone can choose Christ. This faith in every man was a rejection of hierarchy. During this time, evangelists greatly increased attendance at Protestant Churches. This came to be known as the Second Great Awakening. It was in the same spirit of the new democracy in that it sought popular favor and said that the individual is free to choose. The Second Great Awakening differed in the North and South. In the South, the awakening began around 1800. Large, emotional, social, and religious camp meetings became regular and were becoming the only way for people to get baptized, married, or have a communal experience. They fostered society to morals but shied away from social reform because of the slavery issue. Northern evangelism led to the formation of societies devoted to the redemption of the human race and American society. It began to defend Calvinism from the liberal view of the enlightenment. A movement for social reform began in the North and people believed that they could save everyone. There were large reforms against prostitution and the epidemic of alcoholism. A new ethic of self-control was being instilled in the middle class so they would be able to confront economic growth and social mobility without losing their culture or morality. Finney departed radically from Calvinism in saying that people are naturally good and could be free of sin like God. This is against Protestant beliefs and some evangelists like Lyman Beecher were disturbed by his radicalism. Evangelists believed in social reform because they said that the government and society has to present opportunities to become perfect by reforms like wiping out drunkenness.
8. Utopian Communities- New Harmony, Oneida, Brook Farm
Utopian Socialism was a radical movement in the U.S. that has foreign origins because it was led by the British man Robert Owen. They founded communities were based on common and equal property ownership which made it hard for them to take root in the U.S. The impulse survived however and in the 1840's a number of Americans interested in the ideas of Charles Fourier, a utopian French theorist, wanted cooperative communities where everyone did a fair share of work. Around 30 Fouriest communities or "phalanxes" were established in Northeast and Midwest states in New Harmony, Indiana as well as Oneida and Brook Farm. They were not socialistic because they had joint-stock exchanges. They resembled radical socialist and religious movements like the Shakers. These "new-harmony" communities were short-lived because Americans were too individualistic. In1848, the most successful utopian community was established in Oneida, New York and was led by John Humphrey Noyes.
9. Cult of True Womanhood
At this time of social reform, women became the spiritual heads of the home and they often influenced their husbands in matters of ethics and religion. The Cult of True Womanhood said that a womanís place is in the home to exert moral and religious influence. This rationalized male dominance. Sisterhoods and sororities sprang up to elevate all women to true womanhood. Reformers like Catherine Beecher said that women should become teachers because a teacherís role is similar to that of a mother.
10. American Colonization Society
Before the 1830's, most anti-slavery people were affiliated with the American Colonization Society. This society called for the gradual abolition of slavery with the cooperation of slave owners. In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison began a more racial abolitionist movement with his journal, the Liberator, in Boston. Garrison founded the American Anti-Slavery Society and colonization movement was put on the defensive. During the 1830's many of the colonization movementís most active Northern supporters became abolitionists.
11. The Liberator
In his Boston journal, The Liberator, Garrison began a more radical anti-slavery movement in which he denounced colonization as a slaveholderís plot to protect slavery. Garrison then founded the American Anti-Slavery Society.
12. Nat Turner
In 1831, a group of Virginia slaves rebelled under Nat Turner for their freedom. Turner was a preacher and a prophet who declared it his mission to end slavery. The rebels killed 60 whites but were soon captured and executed. Nat Turnerís rebellion led the South to fear future rebellions and the South became a closed and repressive society.
William Lloyd Garrison was an abolitionist radical who founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. Abolitionism had a lot of success in small and medium upper North towns. There was a lot of opposition to it in big cities and cities near the South. By the end of the 1830's Garrisonís radical positions had alienated a lot of abolitionists and the movement was in a lot of stress over dissension between black and white members. At an 1840 national abolitionist convention Garrison elected a female abolitionist to the executive committee. This led to a big uproar. In this way the abolitionist movement served as a catalyst for the womenís rights movement. There is a debate among historians over wether abolitionism was a success or a failure.
14. Grimke Sisters
Some anti-slavery women defied conventional ideas and became public speakers demanding an equal role in the leadership of anti-slavery societies. Sarah and Angelina Grimke were the most famous of these women who attracted attention since they were the rebellious daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder. When they were challenged for speaking publicly, Garrison came to their defense. These women and others like them launched the modern movement for gender equality.
15. "King Cotton"
By the 1850's, cotton rose to be a huge economic factor in the South. Large Southern plantations began to use "short-staple" cotton which is different from the fine "long-staple" cotton. Although it was harder to extract seeds from "short-staple" cotton it could be grown anywhere south of Virginia and Kentucky. The Cotton Gin led to the many large cotton plantations in the South. Southern cotton production was rapidly increasing to feed the need of the booming textile industry in England. Cotton was very profitable and the South needed a lot of slaves to produce it. By this time, the South produced three-quarters of the worldís cotton supply and cotton accounted for over half the total dollar value of American exports. When a southern orator coined the term "King Cotton," he was right.
16. Free Soil Party
When Congressman David Wilmot, a Pennsylvania Democrat, proposed the Wilmont Proviso to ban slavery in the Mexican territories, he spoke for a lot of people who were angry at President Polk for favoring the South. These people came to be known as "free-soilers" and were very popular with the American people. They linked racism to resisting the spread of slavery and this appealed to many Americans, especially Northern Whigs, who were afraid of slave competition. They were a purely sectional party who eventually gained prominence and came to be known as Republicans.
Supreme Court Decisions
1. Marbury v. Madison
William Marbury was among the "midnight judges" appointed by John Adams just before he left office. According to the Judiciary Act of 1801, a lot of new judges, mostly Federalist, were appointed to the judicial system. The Republicans beat the Federalists in the presidential election but the Federalists had control of the Supreme Court. Secretary of State James Madison withheld Marburyís papers because they had been overlooked by the previous Secretary of State and Madison didnít have to send them out so he didnít. Ironically, Chief Justice John Marshall was the person who forgot to send out Marburyís papers so he had conflicting interests in the case. The Court ruled that although Marbury has a right to his commission according to the Judiciary Act of 1801 and U.S. law gives him the right to compensation, the Supreme Court does not have the right to order that remedy. In making his decision, Marshall contended that the Judiciary Act of 1789 which gives Marbury the right to his writ of mandamus is unconstitutional and therefore illegal. In this decision, Marshall set an important precedent by giving himself the power of Congressional review. This precedent slipped by the Republicans at the time because they were happy that Marbury was stopped.
2. McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland had been taxing the transactions of the U.S. Bank and McCulloch said that this was illegal. Marshall said that the bank is legal and therefore the state cannot regulate the federal bank. "The power to tax is the power to destroy" said Marshall. The decision for McCulloch was surprising because McCulloch himself had been involved in a scandal.
3. Fletcher v. Peck
A company had gotten a land grant called the Yazoo Land Grant from Georgia. The new Georgia legislature canceled the grant because it was gotten by bribing the previous legislature. This issue was big in the Georgia election. The Supreme Court said that a grant of land is a contract and therefore cannot be rescinded even though it was gotten through bribery.
4. Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Dartmouth College had been chartered in colonial times as a private college to educate and civilize Native Americans. The New Hampshire legislature took back the charter and turned it into a public-state college. The old board of trustees sued the new one because they said that taking back the charter was against Constitutional rights. Marshall ruled in favor of the old board. The problem with this decision is that the idea that a state law is a contract was not shared by all. To call a charter a contract is a loose meaning of a contract. This decision deprives the states from the power of a democracy: to change their laws and minds. This is in the interests of private property rights: a Federalist idea.
5. Gibbons v. Ogden
In this Supreme Court case, New York and New Jersey argued over separate state legislation on navigation for the Hudson River. Marshall said that they couldnít have the right to navigation according to the Constitution. Marshall said that only the federal government can regulate commerce between the states. This decision gives a lot of power to the federal government. Marshall is using a loose reading of the Constitution because commerce usually means the trade of real goods and according to many, navigation isnít necessarily commerce.
6. Worcester v. Georgia
This was a Supreme Court decision that denied the right of a state to extend its jurisdiction over tribal lands. In 1832, President Jackson condoned Georgiaís defiance of the Courtís decision. Jackson said regarding the ruling, "Mr. Marshall has ruled, now let him enforce the ruling."
7. Charles River Bridge v. Warren River Bridge
The Charles River Bridge had a charter for Boston traffic. Massachusetts then gave a 2nd charter to the Warren River Bridge and the Charles River Bridge sued Massachusetts for loss of property. The Supreme Court ruled for the defendant, the Warren River Bridge, because the charter hadnít guaranteed a monopoly or even a profit for the bridge.
8. Dred Scott Decision
In the case of Dred Scott v. Sanford, Scott was a slave whose master took him to Wisconsin territory, which was a free state under the Northwest Ordinance. After his masterís death, Scott sued for his freedom because he was in free territory. The Supreme Court ruled against Scott since he was black and therefore he was not a U.S. citizen and could not sue. The court could have left it at that but President Buchanan pressured Chief Justice Roger B. Taney to rule on the broader issue of the status of slavery in the territories. Taney ruled that since the U.S. government has no right to control slavery in the territories, the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional. This undermined the basis of the Republican party. Northerners, especially Republicans, said that this ruling was part of a Southern conspiracy to expand slavery but they did not openly defy the ruling. In fact, the ruling helped the Republicans because it strengthened their claim of a Southern conspiracy. The decision in Dred Scott was a devastating political miscalculation which led to the ruining of Douglasí hopes at becoming President because his popular sovereignty had been ruled illegal.
Quotes, Terms, & Concepts
1. "We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans."
This statement was made by President Jefferson during his inaugural address in 1800. This was an attempt to quiet partisan fears. He didnít mean that there were no longer any party differences. He meant that all of the American people shared a deep commitment to the federal Union based on the republican ideals of the American Revolution. Jefferson interpreted the election of 1800 as a revolutionary episode: the fulfillment of the principles of 1776.
2. "The Federalists have retreated behind the ramparts of the Supreme Court."
When the Federalists realized that they had lost control of the executive branch in 1800, they passed the Judiciary Act of 1801 which created several circuit courts and 16 new judgeships filled with "midnight appointees." This and the appointment of John Marshal as Chief Justice, a man who could stand up to Jefferson, angered President Jefferson. In 1802, Jeffersonís Congressional allies called for a repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801. This is what Jefferson meant by this statement.
3. Era of Good Feelings
For a period after the War of 1812, single party politics dominated and there was a myth of national harmony. This period during President Monroeís two terms was called the Era of Good Feelings. During this time, there was little political interest. There was a lot of nationalism and a sense of American pride and purpose. The Republicans were now dominant and the Federalists couldnít win an election.
4. "Mr. Marshall has ruled, now let him enforce the ruling."
President Jackson said this after Chief Justice Marshall ruled in Worcester v. Georgia that a state cannot extend its jurisdiction over tribal lands. In 1832, Jackson condoned Georgia for defying the ruling and he challenged Marshall to enforce his ruling.
5. "If France owns Louisiana, we shall have to marry ourselves to the English fleet."
Jefferson said this pertaining to the Louisiana Purchase. He meant that the U.S. needed to buy Louisiana so that we wouldnít have to ally with the British against the French and be corrupted by them. This is a very Republican belief.
1. Amendments 13-15
These five Amendments were passed during or after the Civil War and have come to be known as the "Civil War Amendments." These Amendments were a great step towards civil equality in the U.S. The 13th Amendment provided freedom for all of the black slaves. The 14th was a response to the Johnson veto and it said that no state may deny equality under the law to its citizens. It also denied federal office to former Confederate officers. This is a doctrine of incorporation which means that it makes a Constitutional guarantee apply to the states. The 14th effectively does to the states what the Bill of Rights did to Congress. The Supreme Court still ruled until the 1940's that the states could deny the Bill of Rights. The 14th Amendment totally destroyed the U.S. Constitution and in so doing it was a completion of the "Second U.S. Revolution" which started with the Civil War and whose objective was to destroy the power of the states. The 1867 Reconstruction plan required the Southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment and to have 50% of its population take an oath of loyalty to the Constitution in order to rejoin the union. The 15th Amendment said that states cannot deny the vote based on race, color, or creed. It also said that if the states violate this Amendment, those states will lose representation proportional to the people denied of voting. This punishment was indirect because the U.S. still believed in a balance between federal and state powers.
2. Wade-Davis Bill
In 1864 Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill which required 50% of the population in Confederate states to take an oath of loyalty in order to be re-admitted. Lincoln vetoed the bill and although he was working on a compromise Lincoln was very stubborn and sure of himself so there is no reason to believe that Lincoln would have actually compromised. Unlike Congress, Lincoln believed that the South should be punished with remorse.
3. Lincolnís Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Lincolnís policy was to pardon the Southern states so long as they took an oath of allegiance to the Union and recognized Emancipation. His motive in this was mainly to shorten the war and strengthen Emancipation. Congress was unhappy with Lincolnís reconstruction policies and a minority of anti-slavery Radicals were angry because the plan did not call for black male suffrage. Moderates didnít trust the South and feared that the oath would cheat the North out of its victory. Congress held that only they and not the President had the power to restore the Union.
4. Johnsonís Reconstruction Policy (1865)
Johnsonís Reconstruction policy led uneasiness among the Radicals but most Republicans were willing to listen to it. Johnsonís plan placed North Carolina and other Southern states under Southern politicians who had been against secession and who hadnít served in the Confederacy. These governments would call constitutional conventions with only "loyal" white delegates. Confederate leaders and wealthy planters were excluded except for Presidential pardons. The conventions were required to declare the Ordinances of Secession illegal, repudiate the Confederate debt, and ratify the 13th Amendment. After this is done the state would regain full rights under the Constitution. These conventions gave no black suffrage and established "Black Codes" to undermine black rights. This along with the fact that a lot of ex-Confederate leaders were elected to Congress created a rift between Johnson and Congress. Johnson wanted to attack the rich Southern aristocrats, not help the blacks like most Republicans. The Republicans in Congress opposed his plan because they did not want a Democratic controlled-Congress and also because they wanted more rights for blacks.
5. Civil Rights Act of 1866
This act was passed by Congress in order to nullify the "Black Codes" and to provide equal protection for blacks.
6. Freedmenís Bureau Bill
The contract-labor system committed workers for a year with fixed wages. The Freedmenís Bureau reviewed and enforced contracts between blacks and planters during the Reconstruction period. Some Bureau officials defended blacks while others defended the planters. The Bureauís influence waned and the contract-labor system was abandoned.
7. First Reconstruction Act of 1867
This Act which was passed over Johnsonís veto put the South under five military districts for a short time. Subsequent acts allowed for quick readmission of states with black suffrage.
8. Tenure of Office Act
After Johnson dismissed officeholders who sympathized with "Radical Reconstruction" Congress passed this act which required Senate approval to remove cabinet members. Johnson said that this was against the separation of powers and some Congressmen called for impeachment when he fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton in violation of the Tenure of Office Act.
9. Ku Klux Klan Acts
During the Grant Presidency, the Ku Klux Klan arose in the South to restore white supremacy through brutal intimidation of blacks. They became the main threat to the black vote. In 1870 and 1871, the Ku Klux Klan Acts proclaimed interference with voting rights a federal crime and allowed for the use of troops to stop voting rights violations.
10. Civil Rights Cases
In the Civil Rights Cases (1883) the Supreme Court ruled that the 14th Amendment barred only state governments from discriminating on account of race and not private individuals or organizations.
11. Plessy v. Ferguson
This 1896 Supreme Court case established the doctrine of "separate but equal" when it upheld a Louisiana law requiring separate railroad cars for whites and blacks.
12. Homestead Act
This 1862 act gave people 160 acres of land upon a $10 registration fee and a pledge to live on and cultivate the land for five years. 48 million acres were distributed under this but few had the cash to establish themselves. As in all of the land acts, large corporations got most of the land even though it was intended for individuals.
13. Timber Culture Act
This 1873 act gave people an additional 160 acres if 1/4 of the land was planted with trees in four years. 10 million acres were distributed under this. This act helped reforestation and helped to create viable farms.
14. Emancipation Proclamation
In 1863 President Lincoln declared all slaves free and established abolitionism as an official war aim. Under this, 1/4 of the Southern slaves were freed during the war and this hurt the Southern economy. Lincoln initially delayed his proclamation because Northern opinion was initially against emancipation, some slave states were still loyal to the Union, and the war was about secession and not slavery. Lincoln changed his mind to prevent a split in the Republican party, prevent foreign aid for the Confederacy, and because he thought that it would hurt the Southern economy. Thus, the Emancipation Proclamation was for military reasons and was therefore not a dramatic document. Under it, only slaves in the territories were freed.
15. Morell Land Grant Act
This 1862 act established funding for state colleges. In this way, the government promoted inventiveness. Therefore, the growth of the American economy at this time was due both to private initiative and government action.
16. Timber and Stone Act
This 1878 act distributed 160 acres and $2.50 per acre of "unfit" land in some western states. 3.6 million acres were sold under this act. There was a lot of fraud involved and many of the claims were filed and signed over to large companies.
17. Desert Land Act
This 1877 act distributed 640 acres at $1.25 per acre if some of the land is irrigated in three years. 2.6 million acres were distributed under this act and there were many fraudulent claims. In many cases "irrigation" meant just buckets of water.
18. National Reclamation Act
This 1902 act set aside most of the profit from the sale of public lands in sixteen western states to finance irrigation projects in the arid states. This gave irrigators a major boost.
19. Dawes Severalty Act
This 1887 act distributed reservation land to individual Indian families. The land could be sold after 25 years. 47 million acres were distributed under this. The Indians were poorly prepared for independent farming and many whites got the land through fraud.
20. Sherman Antitrust Act
This act said that any business that acted in restraint of trade could be sued and dismantled by the Government. The Supreme Court threw out almost all cases where the government tried to sue business monopolies except those cases that involved trade unions.
21. United States v. E.C. Knight Co.
This was an example of a case where the Supreme Court threw out a case where the government tried to sue a business monopoly.
Terms & People
1. Radical Reconstruction
Radical Reconstruction was a compromise between radicals and moderates in Congress. While the Radicals wanted an extended period of military rule, confiscation and redistribution of land, and federal aids for schools for whites and blacks, most Republican Congressmen were against this because it was against Federalism and it would take decades. Radical Reconstruction said that if blacks could vote then theyíd be able to protect their rights. It led to a lot of corruption in the South. President Johnson was against Radical Reconstruction. In the 1860's and 70's. Reconstruction failed due to violent white resistance which convinced Northerners that Reconstruction wasnít worth it. The North accepted this because they were racist and also sick and tired of the whole thing. Grant accepted it because he didnít want to lose votes.
2. Black Codes
The Southern constitutional conventions initiated by President Johnson passed Black Codes which were ways to legally bypass the Civil War Amendments. These codes denied blacks a free choice of their employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared the Black Codes to be illegal.
After the contract-labor system was abandoned, sharecropping, a capitol labor system, emerged. Under this system, blacks would work a piece of land for a fixed share of the crop (usually Ĺ.) The advantages are that there is not much expense for the farmer before the harvest and it forced the tenant to share the risk of crop failure. At first blacks thought sharecropping was a step towards landowning but it turned out to a new kind of servitude because various methods binded the indebted tenants to one landlord for an extended period of time. Sharecropping replaced slavery because it was the least risky alternative to blacks. It was a jump to total independence. Under this system, blacks have their own land, can do their own labor, and have houses separated and spread out from others. Sharecropping is advantageous to plantation owners because their risk is reduced, and it was a way of solving their problem of having land but no money or labor. Sharecropping ultimately turned the South into a one crop economy. It probably would have been better to grow food instead.
4. Scalawag and Carpetbagger
One of the social classes in the southern Republican party in 1867 were called carpetbaggers. These were Northern businessmen with in interest in government aid for private enterprise. Many Southern governors during the Reconstruction period were carpetbaggers. Scalawags were former Whig planters or merchants who were born in the South or had immigrated there before the war and now had a chance to realize their dreams for commercial and industrial development. They were another part of this social class.
5. 40 Acres and a Mule
This was the policy of giving the blacks 40 acres and a mule for them to make a living. The Freedmenís Bureau distributed the land and by 1865, 40,000 black farmers worked on 300,000 acres that they thought would be their own but Johnson gave a lot of the land back to the original owners because he didnít want to interfere with property rights. Congress was also against land reform in order to restore cotton production and stabilize the economy. This led to many black having little or no prospect at becoming landowners.
During the Grant presidency, the issue of how to manage the U.S. currency, especially greenbacks, paper money issued during the war, became a major public issue. In 1868 the money issue came to the forefront and Congress stopped the retirement of greenbacks due to a recession. Greenbackers wanted hard money and Democrats wanted to redeem Civil War debts in greenbacks. The Grant Administration wanted to let the $356 million in greenbacks eventually get on par with gold but the Panic of 1873 brought the economy to its knees and this led to a revival of the agitation to inflate greenbacks. In 1874, Congress authorized a modest issue of new greenbacks but Grant vetoed it. The Specie Resumption Act of 1875 limited the retirement of greenbacks and this angered farmers and workers since it was interpreted as deflation during a depression. This money issue led to the emergence of the Greenback Party who got few votes but kept the issue alive for the next decade.
7. Credit Mobilier Scandal
During Grantís first term an aura of scandal surrounded the White House. Vice President Schuyler Colfax was directly involved in the infamous Credit Mobilier Scandal. Credit Mobilier was a construction company that was actually a fraudulent device for siphoning off profits that shouldíve gone to the stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. This led a group of Republicans who couldnít tolerate the corruption to break with Grant in 1872.
8. Whiskey Ring
Even more corruption arose during Grantís second term. In 1875, federal revenue officials conspired with distillers to defraud the government of millions in liquor taxes. Grantís cabinet was very involved in this scandal which came to be known as the Whiskey Ring. Although there was no evidence of Grantís direct involvement, many accused him of a cover-up when he protected his cabinet and shielded them from justice.
9. Compromise of 1877
The outcome of the 1876 election between Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) and Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat) was extremely close and remained undecided for months. The Compromise of 1877 ended the dispute. The Republicans agreed to withdraw the last troops from the South and Hayes became President. The Southern blacks were now abandoned to their fate. The Radical Southern governments fell and the Democrats controlled the South.
These were Southern Democrats who came to power after the Radical governments fell. Some of them advocated Old South agrarianism while others wanted New South industrialism. All of the Redeemers agreed on white supremacy and laissez faire. They only helped privileged groups. In the 1880's, a lot of Southern industrialism began and the South became very accomodating to Northern business.
11. Bull Run (1 and 2), Vicksuburg, Gettysburg, Antietam
These were the major battles of the Civil War. Bull Run in 1861 was the first major battle and was disastrous for the North. General Winfield Scott made a poor decision to try to capture Richmond with poorly trained Union troops under General Irvin McDowell. The battle was going well for the Union until Confederate reinforcements arrived and the Union troops panicked as they retreated towards Washington. In the second battle of Bull Run (1862), General Robert E. Lee showed his military brilliance by beating the Union General Pope. This led to McCllelanís reappointment as the Union General. In 1862, the battle of Antietam was one of the most bloody one day battles in the Civil War. In the battle, Lee tried to capture Maryland and it ended in a draw. In the battle of Vicksburg, Union General Grant crossed the Mississippi and isolated himself to capture Vicksburg. He took the risk of going into enemy territory and he succeeded in capturing Vicksburg. The Battle of Gettysburg (1863) is regarded as the turning point in the war when Lee was badly beaten at Cemetery Ridge. The battle led to Lincolnís famous Gettysburg Address.
12. Lee, Jackson, McClellan, Sherman
Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson earned his nickname for holding the line against a Northen Assault in the Battle of Bull Run. Union General George McClellan was appointed general after Bull Run and he trained the Union army extensively. McClellan was a Democrat who wanted a quick war and therefore he opposed emancipation. Lincoln was often frustrated by McClellan because he was too slow. Confederate General Robert E. Lee was a brilliant military strategist who won many battle for the Confederacy. He fought many bloody battles with Union General Ulysses S. Grant who was the only fine Northen general during the war. Union General Sherman had a strategy of living off the land and then devastating it. He was a proponent of total war which means that you destroy everything, both the resources and the morale, of the enemy.
These were Northerners such as Clement L. Vallandigham who opposed the war and denounced Lincoln as a traitor. They remained a minority and although some were arrested, they were generally allowed to speak freely.
14. Social Darwinism
This is the concept of applying Darwinís theory about "survival of the fittest" to the social spectrum. In other words, those who are fit to survive in the social atmosphere will prosper, and those who arenít fit will be poor. Carnegie was a major proponent of Social Darwinism. There was however a flaw in Carnegieís version of social Darwinism because he said that since the individual has to struggle and so the unions must be broken. This is a flaw because cooperation is part of the social order. Also, the bosses are cooperating just like the workers.
In order to manage their business, the Standard Oil Company developed a new plan of business organization, the trust. This had a lot of significance for the American economy. A trust centralizes control in a business empire by setting up a board of trustees. The word trust quickly became synonymous with monopoly and anti-trust laws were enacted to prevent these business monopolies.
16. Homestead and Pullman Strikes
In 1892, the union of workers in Carnegieís Homestead, Pennsylvania steel mills waged a strike for higher wages. Most of the men working in the mills were not union members. The company used hired guards to fight against the strike. They also pitted non-union members against the union members. There was a lot of ethnic conflict between the workers in the mill. The union lost the after being crushed and killed by the hired armed guard. By allowing this battle to ensue and allowing the company to hire armed guards the government was siding with the wealthy businessmen. The Pullman Strike was a nationwide strike which was one of the largest ever in U.S. history. The employees of the Pullman Palace Car Co. struck in 1894 in protest of wage rents, higher rent, and layoffs. The strike paralyzed the West because grain and livestock couldnít reach the market. It tied up the economy and renewed class warfare. President Grover Cleveland broke up the strike because it stopped mail delivery. This led to violence breaking out and the strike ended. Workers resented Cleveland for siding with the Railroads.
17. IWW, Knights of Labor, AFL
These were three groups of early trade unions, each of whom had different views and policies. They all believed in social upheaval which meant that the only way to help the workers was to totally change society. This is radical socialism and it alienated a lot of workers. There were union divisions between skilled and unskilled workers, those who wanted peaceful resolutions and those who didnít, and ethnicity.
Andrew Carnegie was a very wealthy businessman who believed strongly in capitalism and social Darwinism. His main business enterprise was steel. He believed that you have to work for everything you get. Carnegie established many libraries around the country to give people the necessary resources with which to survive. Carnegie was one of the "Captains of Business" or "Robber Barons" who created a new form of business, the corporation.
John D. Rockefeller was another extremely wealthy "Captain of Business" who was involved mainly in the oil business.
Questions to Consider
1. The main consequence of Radical Reconstruction was corruption in the South because many leaders under this Reconstruction plan abused their power. These reconstructionist leaders were not that bad however. They up took public works and tried to give equality to the blacks. Radical Reconstruction also led to President Andrew Johnsonís near-impeachment for opposing the plan. Radical Reconstruction ultimately failed due to violent Southern white opposition from white-supremist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. Democrats took the place of Radicals in ruling the South.
2. Both the government and private initiative played a large role in the economic growth in the U.S. between 1865 and 1900. The government contributed by determining the form of growth because it generated wealth from the Civil War purchases. The government also helped by giving land grants and low interest rates for railroad companies. The government also adopted high tariffs to protect businesses. The Supreme Court also played a role by deciding on limited liability: the separation of companies and individuals which led to a lot more people investing in companies because there was less risk involved. The government also promoted inventiveness by funding state colleges. Private initiative also played a large role. Business giants such as Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Gould helped to create the large corporation that has become so vital to our economy. Individual inventors invented such things as the Bessemer process, barbed wire, and refrigerated railroad cars to help these businesses. Advertisements emerged which were created mostly due to private initiative. In conclusion, both private initiative and government action contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy but the government probably had a larger role in it relative to the private individuals.
3. Many of the ads created between 1865 and 1900 show people being lazy, and letting go. They use words such as "exhilaration." These ads undermine traditional Puritan values. Other examples of this are the depiction of a seemingly unmarried couple riding a bicycle together and the association of a holy holiday with a product. The treatment of nature is also different from traditional Protestant values. In these ads, nature is looked at as something to be appreciated whereas traditionally it was meant to be exploited. In conclusion, the U.S. for the most part turned its back on the cultural conditions on which this country was founded.
Please Note: The author of this document shall not be held accountable for any falsehoods that may be present herein. ©1998-1999. All rights are reserved by the author.